What is Palo Azul good for?

palo azul tea

Are you missing out on Palo Azul's miraculous health benefits?

Palo Azul tea has been used since the 16th century in South America and in 1565 it was transported to Europe for its diuretic efficacy and its fluorescent property.

Since that time, palo azul has been popularized as a diuretic for treating kidney and urinary tract problems, kidney stones, bloody diarrhea and colic pain. It has also been commonly used as an anti-inflammatory to cure sciatic nerve pain, arthritis, joint pain and rheumatism.

Palo Azul has so many health benefits that we decided to research HUNDREDS of medical reviews, studies and articles about its benefits.

Thanks to the work of the researchers who published this information, we have been able to organize each benefit of palo azul along with the appropriate citations from the studies.

Benefits

palo azul benefits

Below, we’ve summarized the health properties that studies have found in palo azul tea and what they are good for:

palo azul diuretic

Diuretic

  • Alleviates kidney pain and urinary tract pain
  • Prevents and reduces kidney stone growth


palo azul antioxidant

Antioxidant

  • Helps you lose weight and protects your skin against wrinkles
  • Reduces the risk of cancer


palo azul flavonoids

Flavonoids

  • Lower your cholesterol
  • Reduce your risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and atherosclerosis
  • They also reduce your risk of Ahzlheimer’s, Parkinsons, dementia and erectile dysfunction


palo azul antiinflammatory

Anti-inflammatory

  • Reduces sciatic nerve pain
  • Relieves your back pain and arthritis


palo azul antidiabetic

Anti-diabetic

  • Improves your insulin sensitivity and reduces blood glucose levels
  • “Could be used to prevent the development of diabetes”


palo azul antiviral and antibacterial

Antiviral and Antibacterial

  • Protects against cavities, toothache, gum diseases, bad breath, and E. coli
  • Treats abdominal pain, nausea, and diarrhea


Now you see why we call it MagickTea?

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Palo Azul Benefits

palo azul diuretic

Diuretic

Palo Azul’s diuretic property is probably its most popular and recognized benefit. In case you don't know what diuretics are, they’re substances that promote diuresis, which means they increase water excretion (which makes you urinate more).

Due to the popularity of palo azul as a diuretic, several studies have evaluated its efficacy and found it to be highly effective in significantly reducing kidney stone growth and relieving pain in the kidney and urinary tract.

What is palo azul's diuretic property good for?

Alleviates kidney pain and reduces kidney stone growth

palo azul vs kidney stones

We reviewed 6 studies that found that Palo Azul stopped the formation of kidney stones (calcium oxalate crystals) and significantly decreased the size of kidney stones.

Therefore, one study concluded that it can be "recommended as a preventive drug in the formation of kidney stones."

In addition, another study found that "flavonones in Palo Azul have been identified with antibacterial and antifungal activity.” Therefore, it could be used for “kidney problems, urinary tract pain, kidney calculi, and as a deflamatory."

Alleviates urinary tract pain

woman with urinary tact or kidney pain

Since diuretics increase urinary flow, several studies recommend their use to treat urinary pain.

In fact, the results of 4 different studies suggest that Palo Azul can “reduce irritability in the urinary tract.”

Another study found that the methanolic extracts of Palo Azul were effective against bacteria which are “the most frequent causal agents of urinary tract infection.”

palo azul antioxidant herbs and plants

Finally, a book about botanical medicine writes the following statement about palo azul:

“If prone to acidic, overly concentrated urine, associated kidney stones and urinary tract sediment then Kidneywood (palo azul) will be of use. Because of the plant’s alkalinizing nature, acidic precipitants dissolve back into the urine, thereby reducing pain and urinary tract irritability associated with lithic deposits. Kidney wood (palo azul) is soothing to kidney and urinary tract irritability.”

kidney stones

Learn all about Palo Azul's diuretic health benefits here


palo azul antioxidant

Antioxidant

In case you're wondering, antioxidants are compounds such as vitamins that inhibit oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is a chemical reaction that produces free radicals that scavenge "free” electrons in the body.

This chemical reaction leads to damage to cells, proteins, and DNA that is associated with diabetes, cancer, aging, atherosclerosis, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and many other diseases.


free radicals and oxidative stress formation

In other words, consuming antioxidant-rich foods and teas can reduce your risk of all these degenerative diseases!

Fortunately, the antioxidant property of Palo Azul is one of its most studied and powerful benefits. In fact, we reviewed 13 studies whose results concluded that Palo Azul "exhibited an antioxidant effect.”

palo azul and fruits with flavonoids

Some of these studies found compounds in Palo Azul such as flavonoids, dihydrochalcone and methanol that induce potent antioxidant and anti-glycation activities.

The anti-glycation property protects against AGEs (advanced glycation end products), which are harmful compounds (such as free radicals) that contribute to the aging and degenerative diseases such as diabetes, cancer, Alzheimer's, etc.

What is palo azul's antioxidant property good for?

Helps you lose weight

woman losing weight with palo azul

One study analyzed 2754 twins and found that the group that consumed more flavonoids (antioxidants) “had less percentage of fat” and “burned more fat in the abdomen”

The researchers also found that the twins who consumed more flavonoids “had a 3-9% lower FMR (fat mass ratio) than that of their co-twins.

Another study analyzed 124,000 people and found that "flavonoids increase energy expenditure, decrease fat absorption and function as anti-inflammatories.”

The researchers in this same study found that "increased consumption of most flavonoid subclasses was associated with reduced weight gain.”



Protects against wrinkles

woman with antioxidant skin cream

Victoria Lewis, a doctor of dermatology mentions that “antioxidants are often considered the fountain of youth by skin-care professionals and experts.”

“Not only do they (antioxidants) scavenge free radicals—the number one skin-aging culprits—to promote a brighter, more even complexion, they’re also the superstars at nixing fine lines and keeping skin looking fresh.”

This is due to its ability to eliminate oxidative stress and free radicals, which are “the number one skin-aging culprits.”

Another dermatologist, Dr. Mack, writes that “antioxidants protect your skin from this (oxidative stress) and help reduce pigmentation and fine lines and wrinkles.” He goes on to mention that in his opinion, “an antioxidant serum is a must for your skin-care routine.”

Reduce your risk of cancer

woman with cancer

According to the findings of two medical reviews that analyzed 327 studies conducted specifically on flavonoids (antioxidants), it is well established that oxidative stress can lead to cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and aging.

Therefore, "diets rich in antioxidants decrease the cancer-promoting action of free radicals and oxidative stress."

Moreover, we read a study that looked at 1522 breast cancer cases and 1547 frequency control subjects from June 2007 to July 2018 in Guangdong, China. The results of this study indicated that consumption of “flavonoids and most flavonoid subclasses intakes were inversely associated with breast cancer risk.”

* Here’s a very interesting fact for wine drinkers: “Moderate wine drinkers also seem to have a lower risk to develop cancer of the lung, endometrium, esophagus, stomach, and colon.”

Thank you flavonoids!

wine reduces risk of cancer

Do you want to learn more about Palo Azul's antioxidant property?


palo azul flavonoids

Flavonoids

I'm sure by this point you must be dying to know... What are flavonoids?!

Flavonoids are natural antioxidants found in vegetables, fruits, plants, bark, flowers, wine and teas such as palo azul.

There are HUNDREDS of studies that have been done on them and they’ve found a ton of health benefits. Researchers have attributed their health benefits to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-aging, anti-hypertensive, anti-bacterial, anti-mutagenic, anti-viral and anti-cancer properties.

palo azul and fruits with flavonoids

For example, many epidemiological studies show an “inverse correlation between dietary flavonoid consumption and chronic degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, osteoporosis, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancers.”

These are the MOST flavonoid-rich foods: apples, pears, onions, strawberries, blueberries, celery, peppers, and teas such as palo azul

applepearsonionsstrawberries and blueberriescelerypalo azul tea

What are palo azul's flavonoids good for?

They lower your cholesterol

eggs cholesterol

One study found that “flavonoids in tea may lower blood cholesterol concentrations and blood pressure, thereby providing sn>

Another study found that the antioxidant property of flavonoids " inhibits the oxidation of LDL cholesterolAnother study found that the antioxidant property of flavonoids " inhibits the oxidation of LDL cholesterol.”

Finally, another study concluded that: “Palo Azul (EP) reduced the blood glucose, increased serum insulin, body weight, marker enzymes of hepatic function, glycogen, HDL, GK and HK while there was reduction in the levels of triglyceride, cholesterol.”

You can read the full article here: Palo Azul vs. Cholesterol

Reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease

palo azul vs cardiovascular disease

Epidemiological, clinical and animal studies reveal that “flavonoids may exert protective effects against various disease conditions including cardiovascular disease and cancer.”

Some studies even demonstrated that “flavonoid intake is inversely correlated with mortality from cardiovascular disease.”

Finally, a study concluded the following:

"Antioxidant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic properties play a significant role in the lower cardiovascular mortality illustrated by increased flavonoid consumption.”

You can read the full article here: Palo Azul vs. Cardiovascular Disease

Reduce your risk of atherosclerosis

butter atherosclerosis

Various epidemiological studies show that consuming “flavonoids in tea may lower blood cholesterol concentrations and blood pressure, thereby providing some protection against cardiovascular disease.”

This is due to its ability to "inhibit the oxidation of LDL through a mechanism involving the elimination of free radicals that plays a key role during atherosclerosis.”

One study established the importance of the oxidation of LDL cholesterol by writing that “oxidative modification of LDL cholesterol is thought to play a key role during atherosclerosis.”

Finally, the scientists in one study observed that the “consumption of them (flavonoids) is associated with improvement in endothelial function (blockage of arteries) via vascular endothelial nitric oxide synthase and protein kinase B (Akt) activation.”

Read the full article here: Palo Azul vs. Atherosclerosis

Reduce your risk of hypertension

man with hypertension

Two medical reviews composed of findings from 327 different studies conducted specifically on flavonoids, and their findings revealed that "dietary flavonoids are associated with a lower risk of hypertension and CVD (cardiovascular disease).”

The publishers of these reviews also observed that “the blood pressure level was reduced in patients with hypertensionafter greater consumption of flavonoids.

Finally, one study concluded the following:

Flavonoids in tea may lower blood cholesterol concentrations and blood pressure, thereby providing some protection against cardiovascular disease.”

You can read the full article here: Palo Azul vs. Hypertension

Reduce your risk of Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and dementia

man with alzheimers parkinsons or dementia

We read a very interesting study which analyzed a group of 49,281 men and 80,336 women in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and found that “the participants in the highest quintile of total flavonoids had a 40% lower PD (Parkinson’s Disease) risk than those in the lowest quintile.”

This is what the researchers concluded:

“Our findings suggest that intake of some flavonoids may reduce PD (Parkinson's Disease) risk.”

Another study about flavonoids found that they have “favourable biochemical and antioxidant effects associated with various diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease (AD), atherosclerosis, etc.”

berries

Finally, a study concluded the following:

“Flavonoids contained in berries may have a positive effect against Parkinson's disease and may help to improve memory in elderly people. Intake of antioxidant flavonoids has been inversely related to the risk of incidence of dementia.

You can read the full article here: Palo Azul vs. Alzheimer's, Parkinsons's and Dementia

Reduce your risk of erectile dysfunction

man with erectile dysfunction

Results from one study "showed that “flavonoid consumption 50 mg/day reduced the risk of erectile dysfunction by 32%.”

Another study supported these results, as it concluded that "flavonoid-rich foods are associated with a reduced incidence of erectile dysfunction.”

Moreover, another study found that "men with erectile dysfunction reported a lower monthly average of total flavonoid intake."

Due to the antioxidant capacity of flavonoids, another study concludes that flavonoids "may ameliorate erectile dysfunction by inhibiting oxidative stress."

You can read the full article here: Palo Azul vs Erectile Dysfunction

Improves nausea, abdominal pain, digestive issues and loss of appetite

woman with abdominal pain or nausea

One study showed the efficacy of flavonoids “in the treatment of hepatobiliary dysfunction and digestive complaints, such as sensation of fullness, loss of appetite, nausea, and abdominal pain.”

Additionally, loss of appetite is commonly attributed to bacteria and viruses, and many studies have demonstrated the potent antibacterial and antiviral activity of Palo Azul and its flavonoids.

You can read the entire article here: Palo Azul vs. Nausea, Abdominal Pain, Digestive Issues and Loss of Appetite



palo azul antiinflammatory

Anti-inflamatory

The powerful anti-inflammatory property of palo azul is responsible for some of its most popular uses! Namely, it can improve sciatic nerve health, reduce back pain, arthritis, and joint pain.

Results from 6 different studies concluded in their results that Palo Azul induced a significant inhibition of inflammation and/or showed anti-inflammatory activity.

Also, several studies show that methanol, ethanol, or flavonoids in Palo Azul act as anti-inflammatory agents.

omega 3 antiinflammatory and flavonoids

What is palo azul's anti-inflammatory property good for?

Reduces sciatic nerve pain

woman with sciatic nerve pain

Studies have found 2 main reasons why palo azul can reduce sciatic nerve pain.

1. The first reason is due to the fact that this pain is commonly caused by a buildup of uric acid in the blood and palo azul is an active reducer of uric acid levels.

2. The second reason is due to inflammation, as this is another common cause of sciatic nerve pain and we already know that palo azul is a potent anti-inflammatory.

woman healing sciatic nerve pain

One medical study concluded that “the inhibition (of inflammation) leads to a reduction in pain behavior and inflammation following chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve.”

Another medical article mentions that “any cause of irritation or inflammation of the sciatic nerve can produce the symptoms of sciatica.”

Finally, a study concluded the following:

“The plant (palo azul) has been used in traditional treatments of nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis [2], lumbalgia, arthritis, rheumatism, sciatica, and as blood depurative because it eliminates uric acid, of which application the palo azul derives its diuretic and antirheumatic fame.”

You can read the full article here: Palo Azul vs. Sciatic Nerve Pain

Reduces back pain and arthritis

woman with back pain

One study found that the ethanol extract of Palo Azul and its flavonoids-rich fractions “inhibited secondary inflammatory reactions in arthritic rats.”

This study also mentions that “many plant constituents, including flavonoids, have proven effective against arthritis by reducing cartilage degradation, diminishing leukocyte infiltration in the synovial space, decreasing serum cytokine levels, and other mechanisms (9).”

Finally, one study concluded the following:

“Our findings support the use of Eysenhardtia polystachya bark (Palo Azul) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and pain management.”

You can read the full article here: Palo Azul vs. Arthritis and Back Pain

Reduces joint pain

woman with arthritis

Like sciatic nerve pain, joint pain is commonly caused by inflammation. But the anti-inflammatory activity of palo azul is not the only reason it can improve your joint health.

One study found that flavonoids (found in vegetables, fruits and teas like palo azul) “have the most potential of dietary components for promotion of bone health beyond calcium and vitamin D.”

This finding is supported by epidemiology (population) studies which have shown “flavonoid consumption to have a stronger association with bone than general fruit and vegetable consumption.”

palo azul strengthens joint healthRead the full article here: Palo Azul can Strengthen your Joints!




palo azul antidiabetic

Antidiabetic

Several studies have found that extracts from palo azul “significantly reduced blood glucose levels and showed good anti-diabetic activity.”

In fact, 3 different studies have found that Palo Azul can improve insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, glucose metabolism and/or increase muscle mass.

palo azul reduce risk of diabetes

Another study concluded the following:

“The results indicate that EP (Palo Azul) has good antidiabetic activity and therefore could be used to prevent the development of diabetes.”

A medical review analyzed a large cohort of women and demonstrated that "flavonoids are protective against type 2 diabetes.”

Asides from all this, it is well documented that oxidative stress can cause cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and aging.

Therefore, antioxidants such as Palo Azul can “interfere with radical-producing systems and increase the function of endogenous antioxidants, protecting the cells from damage by these free radicals.”

palo azul and fruits with flavonoids

Do you want to learn more about Palo Azul's antidiabetic property?



palo azul antiviral antibacterial

Antiviral & Antibacterial

It seems like the health benefits of this magical tea never run out do they?

A medical review which analyzed the results of 161 studies that mentioned that flavonoids (found in palo azul) proved to be “potent antimicrobial and viral inhibitors.”

Therefore, they are found to be effective against many infectious diseases (bacterial and viral) such as E. coli.

What is palo azul’s antiviral and antibacterial property good for?

Protects against bacteria and E. coli

palo azul vs bacteria

A very interesting study tested 47 different plants for the treatment of dental diseases such as toothache, dental caries, periodontal disease and gingivitis.

As it turns out, Palo Azul was among the plants that showed the highest inhibitory effect against certain bacterial diseases! For this reason, it was among the plants most frequently used for treating tooth pain, gum diseases, cavities, and bad breath!

woman with perfect teeth

Another study even found that it “showed good antimicrobial effects in E. coli!”

* Here is an interesting finding!

“Flavonoids are known to be synthesized by plants in response to microbial infection.” It’s due to their potent antibacterial, antimicrobial and antiviral activity that flavonoids “show inhibitory activity against E. coli."

Protects against viruses

palo azul vs bacteria

Another medical review which analyzed the findings of 166 studies mentions that "many flavonoids show activity against several types of virus including HSV, respiratory syncytial virus, polio virus and Sindbis virus [135].”

* Here is another interesting finding!

One medical study concluded that flavonoids “are an important source for the discovery and the development of novel antiviral drugs.

mona lisa drinking palo azul

What types of viruses can flavonoids block?

We recently read a study published in 2020 which found that “flavonoids block attachment and entry of viruses into cells, interfere with various stages of viral replication processes or translation and polyprotein processing to prevent the release of the viruses to infect other cells.”

Moreover, they found that “these biomolecules (flavonoids) can act at different stages of viral infection, particularly at the molecular level to inhibit viral growth.”

palo azul vs virus antiviralpalo azul vs coronaviruspalo azul vs hiv viruspalo azul vs influenza viruspalo azul vs herpes ebola

* What's most interesting though, is that they found that flavonoids have inhibitory effects against Ebola, herpes, HIV, Influenza and coronaviruses!

Lastly, the researchers mention that flavonoids are “becoming a more focused topic to explore their potential as antivirals in the current era.”

palo azul virus antiviral

Do you want to learn more about Palo Azul's antiviral and antibacterial properties?



palo azul antinociceptive

Antinociceptive

You thought we were done? As if all the benefits we've covered weren't enough!

After reading hundreds of studies on palo azul, we realized that its antinociceptive property had been reported on several occasions. What does this mean?

Antinociceptives block the detection of a painful or harmful stimulus by sensory neurons.

In other words... they inhibit the sensation of pain by blocking signals from neurons.

For example, general anesthesia and morphine are antinociceptives.

palo azul antinociceptive pain

One study mentioned that palo azul “decreased the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and showed antinociceptive activity. These findings support the use of Eysenhardtia polystachya (palo azul) in Mexican folk medicine for treating rheumatoid arthritis and pain management.

Here's an interesting finding!

Palo azul “showed antinociceptive and antidiarrheal effects with similar potency compared to standard drugs.”

* Although we do not recommend replacing standard medications, these findings establish the importance of having a diet full of natural medicines with potent health benefits.



palo azul benefits

Finally we’ve covered ALL the health benefits of Palo Azul!

At this point, if you are not convinced that you should be drinking Palo Azul every day... we assume that you are the healthiest person in the world and don’t need any of these healing properties! In that case, you can use it to post photogenic images of this fluorescent tea ;)

We hope you enjoyed our article and share it with your loved ones so that they too can benefit from Palo Azul! :)

magicktea palo azul logo

What are you waiting for?

Try Palo Azul and experience the incredible and miraculous health benefits of this magic tea!

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Citations

Now you can see we weren't kidding when we said we read over 100 studies about Palo Azul!

*Note: Palo Azul is commonly referred by its scientific name: Eysenhardtia polystachya / E. polystachya / E.P or Cyclolepis genistoides / C. genistoides

palo azul antioxidant and antiinflammatory

Anti-Oxidant & Anti-Inflammatory

(Apr-Jun, 2014) Evaluation of antidiabetic, antioxidant and antiglycating activities of the Eysenhardtia polystachya

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic, antioxidant and antiglycation properties of Eysenhardtia polystachya (EP) bark methanol-water extract. EP showed Hdonor activity, free radical scavenging activity, metal chelating ability and lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant activity may be attributed to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. EP is an inhibitor of fluorescent AGE, methylglyoxal and the glycation of haemoglobin. In STZ-induced diabetic mice, EP reduced the blood glucose, increased serum insulin, body weight, marker enzymes of hepatic function, glycogen, HDL, GK and HK while there was reduction in the levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, TBARS, LDL and G6Pase.

Conclusion: Eysenhardtia polystachya possesses considerable antioxidant activity with reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity and demonstrated an anti-AGEs and hepatoprotective role, inhibits hyperglycemic, hyperlipidemic and oxidative stress indicating that these effects may be mediated by interacting with multiple targets operating in diabetes mellitus.

Our results in this experiment showed that E. polystachya has an antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, a significant ability to reduce the formation of AGEs and antioxidant activities, which are considered to play important roles in the development of diabetes complications. Therefore, this plant may have relevance in the prevention and treatment of diseases in which oxidants or free radicals or AGEs are implicated. As a result, chemical studies are now being undertaken to characterise these bioactivities.



(Sept 8, 2018) Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Eysenhardtia polystachya and Assessment of the Inhibition of Glycation in Multiple Stages In Vitro and in the Zebrafish Model

The aim was to investigate the inhibitory activities on AGE formation by testing silver nanoparticles fabricated using a methanol extract of Eysenhardtia polystachya (EP–AgNPs) and characterized using various physicochemical techniques.

Conclusion: EP–AgNPs markedly reduced the formation of AGEs, Amadorin-product/fructosamine, Nε-(carboxymethyl)-lysine, amyloid cross β-structure, and protein carbonyl content in BSA-glucose system and increased total thiol-group after 4 weeks in hyperglycemic zebrafish, EP–AgNPs provided a protective effect against glycation. Data suggest that the inhibitory activity of EP–AgNPs on formation of AGEs is developed through a multiple-stage mechanism of glycation. EP–AgNPs could therefore be an antiglycation agent for prevention diabetic complications.




(June 8, 2016) Properties of Flavonoids Isolated from the Bark of Eysenhardtia polystachya and Their Effect on Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Mice

Six new flavonoids 2′,4′-dihydroxychalcone-6′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), α,3,2′,4′-tetrahydroxy-4-methoxy-dihydrochalcone-3′-C-β-glucopyranosy-6′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), 7-hydroxy-5,8′-dimethoxy-6′α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-8-(3-phenyl-trans-acryloyl)-1-benzopyran-2-one (3), 6′7-dihydroxy-5,8-dimethoxy-8(3-phenyl-trans-acryloyl)-1-benzopyran-2-one (4), 9-hydroxy-3,8-dimethoxy-4-prenylpterocarpan (5), and α,4,4′-trihydroxydihydrochalcone-2′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6) were isolated from bark of Eysenhardtia polystachya. Results indicated that 1–5 scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (), nitric oxide radicals (), superoxide anion radical (), radical cation (), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) radical, and protection against H2O2 induced BSA damage was also observed. Furthermore, 1–5 showed ability to decrease the oxidative stress in H9c2 cell. The antioxidant properties of compounds 1–5 are a promising strategy for ameliorating therapeutic effects by avoiding disorders in the normal redox reactions in healthy cells which consequently could alleviate complications of diabetes.

Conclusion: Our data indicates that isolated 1–5 from the bark of Eysenhardtia polystachya have an ability to reduce oxidative stress under diabetic conditions, prevent and/or delay the onset renal, pancreatic, and hepatic damage through decreasing of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant properties, and increasing radical scavenging enzymes activity, also reduce intracellular reactive oxygen species, and they consequently could alleviate complications of diabetes. In addition, the antioxidant properties of compounds 1–5 are a promising strategy for ameliorating therapeutic effects by avoiding disorders in the normal redox reactions in healthy cells.



(Winter 2018) The Ethanolic Extract of Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ort.) Sarg. Bark and Its Fractions Delay the Progression of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Show Antinociceptive Activity in Murine Models

Eysenhardtia polystachya is widely used in folk medicine as an anti-rheumatic and analgesic agent, but no systematic study of its effects on several markers associated with rheumatoid arthritis and its ethnomedical use as analgesic agent has been performed. We evaluated the anti-arthritic and antinociceptive properties of an ethanolic extract of E. polystachya (EE) bark and its rich-flavonoids fractions in murine models. Many plant constituents, including flavonoids, have proven effective against arthritis by reducing cartilage degradation, diminishing leukocyte infiltration in the synovial space, decreasing serum cytokine levels, and other mechanisms (9). Phytochemical studies indicate that E. polystachya contains polyphenols, and previous chemical examination of this species led to the isolation and structural elucidation of several flavonoids (11, 12). The methanol-water extract showed antidiabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, an ability to reduce the formation of advanced glycation end products, and an antioxidant capacity in-vitro (12).

Conclusion: EE and its rich-flavonoids fractions inhibited secondary inflammatory reactions, diminished the specific histopathological alterations in the joint capsule and reduced the serum concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and GM-CSF in arthritic rats. EE also reduced the number of writhes produced by acetic acid and increased the response time on the hot plate for mice. Our findings support the use of Eysenhardtia polystachya bark for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and pain management.

In conclusion, the ethanolic extract of Eysenhardtia polystachya bark and its rich-flavonoids fractions inhibited secondary inflammatory reactions in arthritic rats and delayed histopathological alterations of joint capsules. Eysenhardtia polystachya also decreased the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and GM-CSF and showed antinociceptive activity at the peripheral and central levels, which suggests that this plant has an effect on the cellular immune response. These findings support the use of Eysenhardtia polystachya in Mexican folk medicine for treating rheumatoid arthritis and pain management.




(May 1, 2018) Protection of silver nanoparticles using Eysenhardtia polystachya in peroxide-induced pancreatic β-Cell damage and their antidiabetic properties in zebrafish

The aim was to explore the efficacy of extract of Eysenhardtia polystachya-loaded silver nanoparticles (EP/AgNPs) on pancreatic β cells, INS-1 cells, and zebrafish as a valuable model for the study of diabetes mellitus. EP/AgNPs promote pancreatic β-cell survival, insulin secretion, enhanced hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia in glucose-induced diabetic zebrafish. EP/AgNPs also showed protection of the pancreatic β-cell line INS-1 against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative injury.

The tree Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ortega) Sarg, which belongs to the family Leguminosae, is known as “palo azul” and has been widely used as an antirheumatic and in the treatment of nephrolithiasis and bladder disorders that occur in diabetes.27 Phytochemical studies indicate that E. polystachya contains polyphenols.28 In another study, isoflavans displayed the moderate cytotoxic activity against KB cell lines.29 A methanol–water extract of the bark of E. polystachya showed antioxidant potential, hypoglycemic effects, and inhibition of the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs).30 The effect of flavonoids isolated from the bark of E. polystachya on oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetes mellitus in mice was also examined.31 In other research, we determined that dihydrochalcones inhibit the formation of AGEs.32 The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of E. polystachya-loaded silver nanoparticles (EP/AgNPs) on glucose-induced diabetic zebrafish and peroxide-induced pancreatic INS-1 cell damage.

To produce an antidiabetic effect in zebrafish, the EE of EP must be significant. When the EP extract was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy (Figure 1), two peaks at 284 and 325 nm, which are characteristic of the flavonoid bands I and II, respectively, were observed.41 The EP encapsulation efficiency of the obtained nanoparticles was found to be 84.8%. The synthesized AgNPs displayed an incorporation efficiency of 44.34%, showing that they were effectively loaded.

Treatment with EP/AgNPs alone or in the presence of H2O2 could ameliorate insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism (Figure 6). EP/AgNPs promote pancreatic β-cell survival, insulin secretion-enhanced hyperglycemia, and hypolipidemia. These results confirming the effectiveness of nanoparticles in ameliorating hyperglycemia.

EP/AgNP treatment may provide beneficial effects on the function of insulin secretion through its protective effect on pancreatic β cells.48 In addition, a zebrafish model was used to confirm the antidiabetic efficacy of EP/AgNPs on experimental diabetic animals.

The findings demonstrated that diabetic fish had higher serum insulin concentrations than control zebrafish, suggesting pancreatic β-cell damage in this group, while EP/AgNPs at a dose of 100 µg/mL resulted in decreased plasma insulin levels (by 54%) compared with the glucose-induced diabetic fish group, which was similar to normoglycemic control zebrafish (Figure 8B). The results confirm the ability of EP/AgNPs to ameliorate cell viability and insulin secretion in zebrafish under high glucose concentrations. In this study, the treatments of zebrafish glucose-induced diabetes with EP/AgNPs were consistent with those reported in previous studies, confirming the effectiveness of nanoparticles in ameliorating hyperglycemia.

Conclusion: The results indicate that EP/AgNPs have good antidiabetic activity and therefore could be used to prevent the development of diabetes. The biosynthesized AgNPs from bark methanol/water extract of E. polystachya contain bioactive compounds such as chalcones, flavonoids, and dihydrochalcones, which play a determinant role in the phytofabrication of the AgNPs. EP/AgNPs promote pancreatic β-cell survival, insulin secretion-enhanced hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia in glucose-induced diabetic zebrafish. In addition, EP/AgNPs restore insulin secretion from INS-1 cells stimulated by H2O2, suggesting that this could result from cytoprotection against oxidative injury. These findings suggest that EP/AgNPs could be used as therapeutic nanoparticles to prevent the development of diabetes.



(Dec 1, 2011) SEPARACIÓN Y EVALUACIÓN DEL EFECTO ANTIINFLAMATORIO Y ANTIOXIDANTE DE LOS FLAVONOIDES DE Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ort.) Sarg.

Flavonoids exhibited strong antioxidant activity and other properties that are capable of inhibiting the inflammatory process by different mechanisms of action in vitro and in vivo. Recent research in our laboratory demonstrated the presence of flavonoids in Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ort.) Sarg. (sweet wood) a tree widely distributed in Mexico, as well as anti-inflammatory activity of leaves and bark after the administration of infusion and decoction at a dose of 200 mg/kg (bw) and ethanol extract at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg (bw) in a murine model of chronic granulomatous inflammation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to separate the flavonoid-rich fraction of Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ort.) Sarg. and evaluate its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.

Final and dry weights of the granulomas obtained from rats treated with fractions rich in flavonoids and indomethacin significantly decreased as compared to the control group.

Conclusion: The results of this research show that the fractions rich in flavonoids induce an anti-inflammatory effect in chronic inflammation, probably produced by its selective inhibition of COX-2



(March 28, 2019) 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-α,4,2,4,6-pentahydroxy-dihydrochalcone, from Bark of Eysenhardtia polystachya Prevents Diabetic Nephropathy via Inhibiting Protein Glycation in STZ-Nicotinamide Induced Diabetic Mice

Previous studies have shown that accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) can be the cause of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in diabetic patients. Dihydrochalcone 3′-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl α,4,2′,4′,6′-pentahydroxy–dihydrochalcone (1) is a powerful antiglycation compound previously isolated from Eysenhardtia polystachya. After 5 weeks, these elevated markers of dihydrochalcone treatment (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) were significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated. In addition, they ameliorate the indices of renal inflammation as indicated by ICAM-1 markers. The kidney and circulatory AGEs levels in diabetic mice were significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated by (1) treatment. Histological analysis of kidney tissues showed an important recovery in its structure compared with the diabetic group. It was found that the compound (1) attenuated the renal damage in diabetic mice by inhibiting AGEs formation.

In previous studies, we isolated several dihydrochalcones from the Bark of Eysenhardtia polystachya [10], which showed an efficient inhibition of fluorescent and non-fluorescent AGE formation, reduced level of fructosamine, significantly suppressed oxidation of thiols and protein carbonyl content in a BSA/glucose system; in addition, inhibited generation of MGO, and the formation of amyloid cross-β structure.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the treatment with dihydrochalcone protects renal function and prevents kidney injury in STZ-nicotinamide induced diabetic nephropathy, ameliorated markers of DN, as well as inflammation, HbA1C, AGE-inhibition in kidneys and circulation.

The renoprotective effect of dihydrochalcone isolated from Eysenhardtia polystachya might be associated in part to its ability to react with reactive carbonyl species and cleavage of pre-formed AGEs within the kidney by a cross- link breaker inhibiting AGEs-formation.




(Summer, 2018) Silver nanoparticles synthesized with a fraction from the bark of Eysenhardtia polystachya with high chalcone and dihydrochalcone content effectively inhibit oxidative stress in the zebrafish embryo model

In this study, we describe a simple eco-friendly approach for the synthesis of a potent, stable and benign silver nanoparticles to carry and deliver chalcones and dihydrochalcones present in a methanol extract of Eysenhardtia polystachya (EP). This study also demonstrated the biocompatibility of the nanoparticles when tested in RAW264.7 cells and its protective efficacy against oxidative stress induced by the exposure of zebrafish embryos to high glucose concentrations. Treatment with EP/AgNPs increased the activity of anti-stress biomarkers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and total soluble protein. Exposure of the embryos to EP/AgNPs significantly (P<0.05) suppressed the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and lipid oxidation (LPO).

Conclusion: EP/AgNPs synthesized from E. polystachya extract provide an effective defense against oxidative stress in zebrafish embryos.



(Winter 2018) The Ethanolic Extract of Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ort.) Sarg. Bark and Its Fractions Delay the Progression of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Show Antinociceptive Activity in Murine Models

Eysenhardtia polystachya is widely used in folk medicine as an anti-rheumatic and analgesic agent, but no systematic study of its effects on several markers associated with rheumatoid arthritis and its ethnomedical use as analgesic agent has been performed. We evaluated the anti-arthritic and antinociceptive properties of an ethanolic extract of E. polystachya (EE) bark and its rich-flavonoids fractions in murine models. Many plant constituents, including flavonoids, have proven effective against arthritis by reducing cartilage degradation, diminishing leukocyte infiltration in the synovial space, decreasing serum cytokine levels, and other mechanisms (9). Phytochemical studies indicate that E. polystachya contains polyphenols, and previous chemical examination of this species led to the isolation and structural elucidation of several flavonoids (11, 12). The methanol-water extract showed antidiabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, an ability to reduce the formation of advanced glycation end products, and an antioxidant capacity in-vitro (12).

Conclusion: EE and its rich-flavonoids fractions inhibited secondary inflammatory reactions, diminished the specific histopathological alterations in the joint capsule and reduced the serum concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and GM-CSF in arthritic rats. EE also reduced the number of writhes produced by acetic acid and increased the response time on the hot plate for mice. Our findings support the use of Eysenhardtia polystachya bark for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and pain management.

In conclusion, the ethanolic extract of Eysenhardtia polystachya bark and its rich-flavonoids fractions inhibited secondary inflammatory reactions in arthritic rats and delayed histopathological alterations of joint capsules. Eysenhardtia polystachya also decreased the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and GM-CSF and showed antinociceptive activity at the peripheral and central levels, which suggests that this plant has an effect on the cellular immune response. These findings support the use of Eysenhardtia polystachya in Mexican folk medicine for treating rheumatoid arthritis and pain management.




(Feb 29, 2015) Evolution of anti-inflammatory activity of the bark of Eysenhardtia polystachia in experimental animal models

The bark of Eysenhardtia polystachia has been used in Mexican folk medicine for treatment of anti-inflammatory diseases. A total of 1000g of the bark of E. polystachya were dried and powdered in a mechanical grinder. The ground material was extracted with 5L of hexane (PAH), chloroform (PAC) and methanol (PAM) consecutively using a soxhlet apparatus.

Our data indicate that PAM exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in all the trials of paw and ear edema induced exhibiting also anti-arthritic activity. PAM could also markedly inhibit production of pro inflammatory cytokines, especially TNF(alpha), IL-1(beta), PGE(2) and LTB(4). These effects resulted in an attenuation of the inflammatory cytokines and ultimately suppression of the edema. It was seen that PAM is effective on chronic inflammation and acute inflammation.

The methanol extract (PAM) exhibited significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory activity in all assays, instead hexane and chloroform extracts showed no anti-inflammatory activity.

The results of this study demonstrated that methanol extract of the bark of E.poystachya acts as an anti-inflammatory agent. It also can be a good source of effective crude inhibitors for XO and LOX. The finding presented in this study are encouraging an substantiate the search for newer pharmacophores in palo azul behind the anti-inflammatory effect.




(May 25, 2011) Anti-inflammatory properties from isolated compounds of Cyclolepis genistoides

Phytochemical studies of the aqueous extract of C. genistoides showed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, tannins, and anthraquinones. Instead, oleanolic acid (1) and the sesquiterpene lactone deacylcynaropicrin (2), which have been previously reported in this plant (De Heluani et. al., 1997), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract. Compound 1 exhibited significant activity at 1, 3, 5, and 7 h, while compound 2 showed significant inhibition at 3 and 5 h.

Conclusions: From the results obtained in this work, we can conclude that the intraperitoneal administration of both isolated compounds from C. genistoides showed a significant inhibition of the carrageenan-induced inflammation at doses of 75 and 100 mg/kg, while the dose of 40 mg/kg did not produce a significant anti-inflammatory effect. Considering that compounds 1 and 2 were isolated from aerial parts of C. genistoides, these results give support to the use of this plant as an anti-inflammatory in traditional medicine.




(Oct, 2018) Pharmacological and toxicological study of a chemical-standardized ethanol extract of the branches and leaves from Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ortega) Sarg. (Fabaceae)

Eysenhardtia polystachya is used for the empirical treatment of cancer, infections, diarrhea, inflammation, and pain. This study identified, using GC-MS, the main chemical components in an ethanol extract of E. polystachya branches and leaves (EPE) and tested its cytotoxic, antimicrobial, anti-diarrheal, anti-inflammatory, and antinociceptive effects.

Conclusion: EPE exerted in vitro anti-inflammatory effects, mainly, by the decrease in the production of H2O2 (IC50 = 43.9 ± 3.8 µg/ml), and IL-6 (73.3 ± 6.9 µg/ml). EPE (ED50 =7.5 ± 0.9 mg/kg) and D-pinitol (ED50 = 0.1 ± 0.03 mg/kg) showed antidiarrheal activity, and antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid test with ED50 = 117 ± 14.5 mg/kg for EPE and 33 ± 3.2 mg/kg for D-pinitol. EPE showed also antinociceptive activity in the phase 2 of the formalin test (ED50 = 48.9 ± 3.9 mg/kg), without inducing hypnotic effects or altering the locomotor activity in mice. The results here presented corroborate the folk medicinal use of Eysenhardtia polystachya in the treatment of infections, diarrhea, inflammation, and pain. D-pinitol, the main metabolite of EPE, showed antinociceptive and antidiarrheal effects with similar potency compared to standard drugs.

palo azul flavonoids

Flavonoids

(2012) Flavonoid intake and bone health

Flavonoids, found in a wide diversity of plant foods from fruits and vegetables, herbs and spices, essential oils, and beverages, have the most potential of dietary components for promotion of bone health beyond calcium and vitamin D. Recent epidemiological studies show flavonoid consumption to have a stronger association with bone than general fruit and vegetable consumption. Bioactive flavonoids are being assessed for properties beyond their chemical antioxidant capacity, including anti-inflammatory actions. Some have been reported to enhance bone formation and to inhibit bone resorption through their action on cell signaling pathways that influence osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation.

Flavonoids, found in a wide diversity of plant foods from fruits and vegetables, herbs and spices, essential oils, and beverages, have the most potential of dietary components for promotion of bone health beyond calcium and vitamin D. Recent epidemiological studies show flavonoid consumption to have a stronger association with bone than general fruit and vegetable consumption. Bioactive flavonoids are being assessed for properties beyond their chemical antioxidant capacity, including anti-inflammatory actions. Some have been reported to enhance bone formation and to inhibit bone resorption through their action on cell signaling pathways that influence osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation.



(2009) Chapter 18 - Flavonoids and Cardiovascular Health

More than 8000 compounds with flavonoids structure have been identified, many of which are responsible for the attractive colors of flowers, fruits and leaves. In plants, these compounds afford protection against ultraviolet radiation, pathogens, and herbivores [1, 2].

Studies have indicated the protective effects of flavonoids in cardiovascular diseases and these chemicals possess the bioactivity to positively affect against cardiovascular risk factors such as lipoprotein oxidation, dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction. Flavonoids have strong antioxidant properties and so can reduce oxidative stress related to cardiovascular disease. The cardioprotective role of tea is reported to be due to antioxidant effect of the flavonoids, which act as scavengers for free radicals.

Epidemiological, clinical and animal studies reveal that flavonoids may exert protective effects against various disease conditions including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Flavonoids also possess antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory effects. Population studies have shown that flavonoid intake is inversely correlated with mortality from cardiovascular disease [3–6]. Flavonoids have been reported to beneficially impact parameters associated with atherosclerosis, including lipoprotein oxidation, blood platelet aggregation, and vascular reactivity. Antioxidant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic properties are illustrated to play a significant role in the lower cardiovascular mortality observed with higher flavonoid intake [4, 5, 7]. Continued studies of the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of plant flavonoids may provide new strategies for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease.



(2016, Dec 29) (Medical Review: 161 studies) Flavonoids: an overview

Flavonoids, a group of natural substances with variable phenolic structures, are found in fruits, vegetables, grains, bark, roots, stems, flowers, tea and wine. These natural products are well known for their beneficial effects on health and efforts are being made to isolate the ingredients so called flavonoids. Flavonoids are now considered as an indispensable component in a variety of nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, medicinal and cosmetic applications. This is attributed to their anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic properties coupled with their capacity to modulate key cellular enzyme function. Research on flavonoids received an added impulse with the discovery of the low cardiovascular mortality rate and also prevention of CHD.

The recent studies on different plant metabolites have shown that flavonoids may perform a key role in enzyme and receptor systems of the brain, exerting significant effects on the central nervous system, like prevention of the neurodegeneration associated with AD and Parkinson's disease(,15,119).

They have miscellaneous favourable biochemical and antioxidant effects associated with various diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease (AD), atherosclerosis, etc. Flavonoids have several subgroups, which include chalcones, flavones, flavonols and isoflavones. These subgroups have unique major sources. For example, onions and tea are major dietary sources of flavonols and flavones. A number of flavonoids were studied to lower Alzheimer's Aβ production using molecular docking studies.

Lee et al.(,81), while working on the known flavonoid inhibitors of β-KAS III against the methicillin-resistant bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, found that flavonoids such as naringenin (5,7,4′-trihydroxyflavanone) and eriodictyol (5,7,3′,4′-tetrahydroxyflavanone) are potent antimicrobial inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus KAS III. Ganugapati et al.(,82) worked on in silico modelling and docking studies of a superbug enzyme, namely New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1), which is an enzyme found in Escherichia coli.

Lu & Chong(,85) carried out the computational work to predict the binding modes of flavonoid derivatives with the neuraminidase of the 2009 haemagglutinin 1 neuraminidase (H1N1) influenza virus. They employed molecular dynamics simulation techniques to optimise the 2009 H1N1 influenza neuraminidase X-ray crystal structure. All the twenty flavonoid derivatives were found to be satisfactory in binding and inhibiting the activity of the virus. These findings may help to develop a potential drug form of the flavonoid derivatives for the treatment of H1N1 influenza disease.

Kim et al.(,87) reported that a flavonoid-rich diet is associated with a reduced risk of CVD (cardiovascular disease). The study focused on individual as well as total flavonoid diet effects. Higher flavonoid intake was found to be associated with the improved CVD risk factors.

The observational studies done by Hügel et al.(,89) indicated that dietary flavonoids are associated with a decreased risk of hypertension and CVD. A diet rich in all flavonoid classes through herbs and beverages improves vascular health leading to a reduced risk of diseases. It has been observed that the consumption of them is associated with improvement in endothelial function via vascular endothelial nitric oxide synthase and protein kinase B (Akt) activation. The effect of regular quercitin intake on blood pressure in overweight and obese patients with pre-hypertension and stage I hypertension was studied in seventy patients. Ambulatory blood pressure and office blood pressure were measured. It was observed that the blood pressure level was reduced in patients with hypertension(,90).

Paris et al.(,97) worked on flavonoids which lower Alzheimer's amyloid protein (Aβ) production via a nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)-dependent mechanism. It is well known that AD is due to the accumulation of Aβ peptides and the presence of neurofibrillary tangles in the brain(,98,99). Aβ is believed to play an important role in AD and it has been shown that certain flavonoids such as genistein, quercetin, taxifolin, kaemferol, luteolin, apigenin, daidzein, aminogeneistein, and α- and β-napthofalvone can affect Aβ production. Recently, it was suggested that the Aβ-lowering properties of flavonoids are mediated by a direct inhibition of β active site cleavage enzyme-1 (BACE-1) activity, the rate-limiting enzyme responsible for the production of Aβ peptides(,97). It has been reported that a strong correlation exists between the inhibition of NF-κB activation by flavonoids and their Aβ-lowering properties, suggesting that flavonoids inhibit Aβ production in whole cells via NF-κB-related mechanisms.

Flavonoids can prevent injury caused by free radicals in various ways and one way is the direct scavenging of free radicals. Flavonoids are oxidised by radicals, resulting in a more stable, less-reactive radical. In other words, flavonoids stabilise the reactive oxygen species by reacting with the reactive compound of the radical. Because of the high reactivity of the hydroxyl group of the flavonoids, radicals are made inactive, as explained in the following equation as given by Korkina & Afanasev(,108): They further mentioned that this action protects the LDL particles and, theoretically, flavonoids may have preventive action against atherosclerosis.

Antioxidants are compounds that protect the cells against the oxidative effect of reactive oxygen species, and the impaired balance between these reactive oxygen species and antioxidants results in oxidative stress. The oxidative stress may lead to cellular damage which is related to various health ailments such as diabetes, cancer, CVD, neurodegenerative disorders and ageing. Oxidative stress can also damage many biological molecules and proteins and DNA molecules are significant targets of cellular injury. Antioxidants interfere with radical-producing systems and increase the function of endogenous antioxidants, protecting the cells from damage by these free radicals

Anticancer effects of flavonoids such as tangeritin, 3-hydroxyflavone, 3′,4′-dihydroxyflavone, 2′,3′-dihydroxyflavone, fisetin, apigenin, luteolin daidzein and genistein have been carried out by a number of researchers(,151154). Ren et al.(,130) and Huang et al.(,155), while working on natural phenolic compounds and their potential use for cancer prevention, reported that various flavonoids such as tannins, stilbenes, curcuminoids, coumarins, lignans, quinones and other flavonoids have chemopreventive properties and also contribute to induce apoptosis by arresting the cell cycle, regulating carcinogen metabolism and ontogenesis expression. While explaining the possible mechanism of flavonoids in cancer prevention they further mentioned that the flavonoids have complementary and overlapping mechanisms of action including antioxidant activity and scavenging free radicals, modulation of carcinogen metabolism, regulation of gene expression on oncogenes and tumour-suppressor genes in cell proliferation and differentiation, induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, modulation of enzyme activities in detoxification, oxidation and reduction, anti-inflammatory properties and action on other possible targets.

Flavonoids have also been recognised for their antimicrobial activity and many researchers have isolated and identified the structures of flavonoids having properties of antifungal, antiviral and antibacterial activity. Because of this property, many flavonoids are now being used extensively in the fields of nutrition, food safety and health. The antiviral effect of flavonoids has been shown by Wang et al.(,142), particularly in therapy for viral infection.

Flavonoids, like flavonols, are associated with lower population rates of dementia(,156). Similarly, Hwang & Yen(,157) and Jager & Saaby(,119) suggested that citrus flavanones such as hesperidin, hesperetin and naringenin could traverse the blood–brain barrier and may play an effective role in the intervention for neurodegenerative diseases. The role of flavonoids in antidiabetic activity and anti-ageing has also been reported(,158161).



(2013, Dec 29) (Medical review: 166 studies) Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview

Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of flavonoids for humans, along with tea and wine.

Many flavonoids are shown to have antioxidative activity, free radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, while some flavonoids exhibit potential antiviral activities. In plant systems, flavonoids help in combating oxidative stress and act as growth regulators.

The number of studies has suggested protective effects of flavonoids against many infectious (bacterial and viral diseases) and degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and other age-related diseases. Flavonoids also act as a secondary antioxidant defense system in plant tissues exposed to different abiotic and biotic stresses.

Flavonoids found in the highest amounts in the human diet include the soy isoflavones, flavonols, and the flavones.

Oxidative modification of LDL cholesterol is thought to play a key role during atherosclerosis. The isoflavan glabridin, a major polyphenolic compound found in Glycyrrhiza glabra (Fabaceae), inhibits LDL oxidation via a mechanism involving scavenging of free radicals [52]. Several epidemiological studies have suggested that drinking either green or black tea may lower blood cholesterol concentrations and blood pressure, thereby providing some protection against cardiovascular disease. Flavonoids contained in berries may have a positive effect against Parkinson's disease and may help to improve memory in elderly people. Antihypertensive effect has been observed in total flavonoid fraction of Astragalus complanatus in hypertensive rats [55]. Intake of antioxidant flavonoids has been inversely related to the risk of incidence of dementia.

Flavonoids possess many biochemical properties, but the best described property of almost every group of flavonoids is their capacity to act as antioxidants. The antioxidant activity of flavonoids depends upon the arrangement of functional groups about the nuclear structure. The configuration, substitution, and total number of hydroxyl groups substantially influence several mechanisms of antioxidant activity such as radical scavenging and metal ion chelation ability

Hepatoprotective activities were observed in flavonoids isolated from Laggera alata against carbon-tetrachloride (CCl4-) induced injury in primary cultured neonatal rat hepatocytes and in rats with hepatic damage. Several clinical investigations have shown the efficacy and safety of flavonoids in the treatment of hepatobiliary dysfunction and digestive complaints, such as sensation of fullness, loss of appetite, nausea, and abdominal pain.

Flavonoids are known to be synthesized by plants in response to microbial infection; thus it should not be surprising that they have been found in vitro to be effective antimicrobial substances against a wide array of microorganisms. Flavonoid rich plant extracts from different species have been reported to possess antibacterial activity [70, 72, 89, 90]. Several flavonoids including apigenin, galangin, flavone and flavonol glycosides, isoflavones, flavanones, and chalcones have been shown to possess potent antibacterial activity [91]. These compounds are reported for their in vitro antibacterial activity against Vibrio cholerae, Streptococcus mutans, Shigella, and other bacteria [94, 95]. Another study demonstrated inhibitory activity of quercetin, apigenin, and 3,6,7,3′,4′-pentahydroxyflavone against Escherichia coli DNA gyrase [98].

Inflammation is a normal biological process in response to tissue injury, microbial pathogen infection, and chemical irritation. Inflammation is initiated by migration of immune cells from blood vessels and release of mediators at the site of damage. This process is followed by recruitment of inflammatory cells, release of ROS, RNS, and proinflammatory cytokines to eliminate foreign pathogens, and repairing injured tissues. In general, normal inflammation is rapid and self-limiting, but aberrant resolution and prolonged inflammation cause various chronic disorders [106]. A number of flavonoids such as hesperidin, apigenin, luteolin, and quercetin are reported to possess anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. It has been reported that flavonoids are able to inhibit expression of isoforms of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase, and lipooxygenase, which are responsible for the production of a great amount of nitric oxide, prostanoids, leukotrienes, and other mediators of the inflammatory process such as cytokines, chemokines, or adhesion molecules [110]. Much of the anti-inflammatory effect of flavonoid is on the biosynthesis of protein cytokines that mediate adhesion of circulating leukocytes to sites of injury. Certain flavonoids are potent inhibitors of the production of prostaglandins, a group of powerful proinflammatory signaling molecules [111].’

Dietary factors play an important role in the prevention of cancers. Fruits and vegetables having flavonoids have been reported as cancer chemopreventive agents [72, 115]. Consumption of onions and/or apples, two major sources of the flavonol quercetin, is inversely associated with the incidence of cancer of the prostate, lung, stomach, and breast. In addition, moderate wine drinkers also seem to have a lower risk to develop cancer of the lung, endometrium, esophagus, stomach, and colon [116]. The critical relationship of fruit and vegetable intake and cancer prevention has been thoroughly documented. It has been suggested that major public health benefits could be achieved by substantially increasing consumption of these foods [117]. Flavonoids are known to inhibit production of heat shock proteins in several malignant cell lines, including breast cancer, leukemia, and colon cancer [119].

Higher consumption of phytoestrogens, including isoflavones and other flavonoids, has been shown to provide protection against prostate cancer risk [132]. It is well known that due to oxidative stress cancer initiation may take place and thus potent antioxidants show potential to combat progression of carcinogenesis. Potential of antioxidant as an anticancer agent depends on its competence as an oxygen radical inactivator and inhibitor [70, 72, 133]. Therefore diets rich in radical scavengers would diminish the cancer-promoting action of some radicals [134].

Natural compounds are an important source for the discovery and the development of novel antiviral drugs because of their availability and expected low side effects. Naturally occurring flavonoids with antiviral activity have been recognized since the 1940s and many reports on the antiviral activity of various flavonoids are available. Many flavonoids, namely, dihydroquercetin, dihydrofisetin, leucocyanidin, pelargonidin chloride, and catechin, show activity against several types of virus including HSV, respiratory syncytial virus, polio virus and Sindbis virus [135]. Inhibition of viral polymerase and binding of viral nucleic acid or viral capsid proteins have been proposed as antiviral mechanisms of action [139].

Flavonoids have long been reported as serving multiple functions in plants [140]. Various abiotic and biotic factors helps in the generation of ROS in plants leading to oxidative stress. Flavonoids have been suggested as representing a secondary antioxidant defense system in plant tissues exposed to different stresses [141].

Prevention and cure of diseases using phytochemicals especially flavonoids are well known. Fruits and vegetables are natural sources of flavonoids. Variety of flavonoids found in the nature possesses their own physical, chemical, and physiological properties. Structure function relationship of flavonoids is epitome of major biological activities. Medicinal efficacy of many flavonoids as antibacterial, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antiviral agents is well established. Further achievements will provide newer insights and will certainly lead to a new era of flavonoid based pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of many infectious and degenerative diseases.



(2003) Lupin

The healthy properties of flavonoids may be derived from their antioxidative characteristics as free-radical neutralizers. However, some more specific functions have been reported, including their effect on cancer prevention, antiinflammatory and antiviral activities, and their positive effect on capillary fragility and vascular protection.



(2014) Chapter 23 - The Role of Direct and Indirect Polyphenolic Antioxidants in Protection Against Oxidative Stress

The electrophilic properties of flavonoid quinones make them very reactive towards thiols in protein Cys residues to form cysteinyl flavonoid adducts, which may to a large extent explain their anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects among others.

A series of exogenous compounds (flavonoids) are able to protect against oxidative stress by induction of phase 2 enzymes (cytoprotective proteins) through activation of the redox sensitive Keap1-Nrf2-ARE regulatory pathway. Inducers of cytoprotective proteins are, for example, found among polyphenols of which many are present in our daily diet.

Polyphenols are direct antioxidants in vitro, but nevertheless seem to exert their antioxidant effect more by induction of cytoprotective proteins that are involved in a variety of antioxidant actions from reduction of oxidants to the production of endogenous direct antioxidants (e.g., glutathione). Therefore the protection against oxidative stress of polyphenols in vivo is mainly due to their indirect antioxidant effect.



(2014) Polyphenols in Chronic Diseases and their Mechanisms of Action

Dietary flavonoids play an important role in the prevention of diseases related to oxidative stress in living systems.

Numerous epidemiological studies show an inverse correlation between dietary flavonoid consumption and chronic degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, osteoporosis, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancers.



(2014) Antioxidant Properties of Wheat Bran against Oxidative Stress

Because of the high reactivity of the hydroxyl group, flavonoids (Fl-OH) are able to reduce highly oxidizing free radicals with redox potentials by hydrogen atom donation, according to Eq. (10), where R• represents superoxide anion, peroxyl, alkoxyl, and hydroxyl radicals.

Flavonoids are important phytochemical components of wheat bran, and have been shown to be potent antioxidants with anticancer activity.81,82 In addition, flavonoids have a role in the treatment of diabetes83,84 by virtue of their ability to protect against hyperglycemic and alloxan-induced oxidative stress in experimental animal models.85 In a large cohort of women, a clinical trial has shown that flavonoids are protective against type 2 diabetes.

These components of wheat bran possess health benefits for humans, including preventative effects against cancer and type 2 diabetes. Various studies have reported that these compounds exhibit significant antioxidant capabilities, including scavenging free radicals, chelating metal ions, and activating antioxidant enzymes, suggesting antioxidant properties of wheat bran. This chapter includes an overview of stress and oxidative stress and a discussion of the antioxidant properties of wheat bran.



Because of the high reactivity of the hydroxyl group, flavonoids (Fl-OH) are able to reduce highly oxidizing free radicals with redox potentials by hydrogen atom donation, according to Eq. (10), where R• represents superoxide anion, peroxyl, alkoxyl, and hydroxyl radicals.

Flavonoids are important phytochemical components of wheat bran, and have been shown to be potent antioxidants with anticancer activity.81,82 In addition, flavonoids have a role in the treatment of diabetes83,84 by virtue of their ability to protect against hyperglycemic and alloxan-induced oxidative stress in experimental animal models.85 In a large cohort of women, a clinical trial has shown that flavonoids are protective against type 2 diabetes.

These components of wheat bran possess health benefits for humans, including preventative effects against cancer and type 2 diabetes. Various studies have reported that these compounds exhibit significant antioxidant capabilities, including scavenging free radicals, chelating metal ions, and activating antioxidant enzymes, suggesting antioxidant properties of wheat bran. This chapter includes an overview of stress and oxidative stress and a discussion of the antioxidant properties of wheat bran.



(2014) Chapter 32 - Anti-Inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Properties of Dietary Flavonoids

Flavonoids are the most common group of polyphenolic compounds in the human diet and are found ubiquitously in fruits, vegetables, nuts and plant-derived beverages, such as tea and wine. These compounds have been reported to possess a wide range of activities in the prevention of common diseases, including coronary heart disease, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, and others.

Their beneficial effects appear to be related to the various biological/pharmacological activities of flavonoids. A large body of research suggests immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of these compounds.



(2010) Chemistry of Cannabis

Flavonoids may be important for the overall therapeutic effect of THC and the other cannabinoids by either synergistically enhancing them or reducing their side effects.224 Flavonoids may counteract some unwanted effects caused by THC, such as the upregulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α).

Prenylated flavonoids are attracting increasing attention from the scientific community because of their potent antioxidant and anticancer effects, and their potential for treating menopausal problems.270

(2012) Habitual intake of dietary flavonoids and risk of Parkinson disease

In the current analysis, we included 49,281 men in the Health Professional Follow-up Study and 80,336 women from the Nurses' Health Study.

We identified 805 participants (438 men and 367 women) who developed PD during 20-22 years of follow-up. In men, after adjusting for multiple confounders, participants in the highest quintile of total flavonoids had a 40% lower PD risk than those in the lowest quintile

In the pooled analyses for the subclasses, intakes of anthocyanins and a rich dietary source, berries, were significantly associated with a lower PD risk. Our findings suggest that intake of some flavonoids may reduce PD risk, particularly in men, but a protective effect of other constituents of plant foods cannot be excluded.

(2013, Feb) Dietary flavonoids and the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases: review of recent findings.

Results from both cohort studies and randomized trials suggest that anthocyanidins from berries and flavan-3-ols from green tea and cocoa may lower the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Meta-analyses of randomized trials indicate that the strongest evidence exists for a beneficial effect of green tea on LDL-cholesterol and a beneficial effect of flavan-3-ol-rich cocoa on endothelial function and insulin sensitivity.

Evidence from cohort studies and randomized trials suggest beneficial effects of food sources of anthocyanidins (berries) and flavan-3-ols (green tea and cocoa) on cardiovascular health.



(2016) Dietary flavonoid intake and incidence of erectile dysfunction

We conducted a prospective study among 25,096 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study.

In analyses stratified by age, a higher intake of flavanones, anthocyanins, and flavones was significantly associated with a reduction in risk of Erectile Dysfunction ED only in men <70 y old and not older men.

In food-based analysis, higher total intake of fruit, a major source of anthocyanins and flavanones, was associated with a 14% reduction in risk of ED.

CONCLUSIONS:

These data suggest that a higher habitual intake of specific flavonoid-rich foods is associated with reduced ED incidence.



(2012) Flavonoids and cancer prevention: a review of the evidence.

Epidemiological studies suggest dietary intake of flavonoids may reduce the risk of tumors of the breast, colon, lung, prostate, and pancreas.

A limited number of intervention trials of flavonoids have documented cancer preventative effects. Proposed anticancer mechanisms for flavonoids are inhibition of proliferation, inflammation, invasion, metastasis, and activation of apoptosis. Prospective studies with larger sample sizes are needed to develop biomarkers of flavonoid intake and effect.




(2001) Dietary agents in cancer prevention: flavonoids and isoflavonoids.



Flavones and isoflavones may play a prominent role in cancer prevention since these compounds are found in numerous plants that are associated with reduced cancer rates. Many mechanisms of action have been identified for isoflavone/flavone prevention of cancer, including estrogenic/antiestrogenic activity, antiproliferation, induction of cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis, prevention of oxidation, induction of detoxification enzymes, regulation of the host immune system, and changes in cellular signaling.

It is expected that some combination of these mechanisms will be found to be responsible for cancer prevention by these compounds. Compelling data suggest that flavones and isoflavones contribute to cancer prevention; however, further investigations will be required to clarify the nature of the impact and interactions between these bioactive constituents and other dietary components.

(2005) The antitumor activities of flavonoids.

An impressive body of information exists on the antitumor action of plant flavonoids. In vitro work has concentrated on the direct and indirect actions of flavonoids on tumor cells, and has found a variety of anticancer effects such as cell growth and kinase activity inhibition, apoptosis induction, suppression of the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases and of tumor invasive behavior.

Experimental animal studies indicate that certain dietary flavonoids possess antitumor activity. The hydroxylation pattern of the B ring of the flavones and flavonols, such as luteolin and quercetin, seems to critically influence their activities, especially the inhibition of protein kinase activity and antiproliferation.

Dietary flavonoids critically influence several cellular and immune processes associated with the development and progression of cancer. It is clear that these food components possess the propensity to modulate a variety of biological events associated with cancer progression and development, such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell differentiation and neovascularization.

Certain dietary flavonoids display in vivo antitumor activity and depress in vivo angiogenesis.




(2018) Dietary Flavonoids and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer: An Updated Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Studies.

Results: A total of 12 studies (5 cohort and 7 case-control studies) involving 17,481 cases and 740,859 controls were eligible for meta-analysis. High intake of dietary flavonols, flavones and anthocyanidins may decrease the risk of colorectal cancer;

Conclusions: The present study suggested that high intake of flavonols (such as quercetin) may reduce the risk of colon cancer, and high intake of flavones (such as apigenin) may reduce the risk of rectal cancer.



(2019) Association between flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses intake and breast cancer risk: a case-control study in China.

This case-control study recruited 1522 eligible breast cancer cases and 1547 frequency-matched control subjects from June 2007 to July 2018 in Guangdong, China.

After adjusting for potential confounders, inverse associations were observed between total flavonoids, anthocyanidins, proanthocyanidins, flavanones, flavones, flavonols and isoflavones and overall breast cancer risk.

This study indicates that total flavonoids and most flavonoid subclasses intakes were inversely associated with breast cancer risk.




(2019) Flavonoids and bladder cancer risk.

We analyzed data from an Italian case-control study including 690 incident bladder cancer cases and 665 controls admitted to the same network of hospitals for acute, non-neoplastic, non tobacco-related diseases.

We found an inverse association between isoflavones (OR for the highest compared to the lowest quintile of intake = 0.56, 95% CI 0.37-0.84) and flavones (OR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.44-0.95) and bladder cancer. Non-significant inverse association was found for flavan-3-ols (OR = 0.70), flavonols (OR = 0.85) and total flavonoids (OR = 0.76)

Our data indicate an inverse association between isoflavones and flavones with respect to bladder cancer risk.

(2019) Flavonoids and bladder cancer risk.

We analyzed data from an Italian case-control study including 690 incident bladder cancer cases and 665 controls admitted to the same network of hospitals for acute, non-neoplastic, non tobacco-related diseases.

We found an inverse association between isoflavones (OR for the highest compared to the lowest quintile of intake = 0.56, 95% CI 0.37-0.84) and flavones (OR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.44-0.95) and bladder cancer. Non-significant inverse association was found for flavan-3-ols (OR = 0.70), flavonols (OR = 0.85) and total flavonoids (OR = 0.76)

Our data indicate an inverse association between isoflavones and flavones with respect to bladder cancer risk.

palo azul diuretic

Diuretic

(Jul-Sep, 2002) Effect of isoflavones isolated from heartwood of Eysenhardtia polystachya on the growth of oxalate crystals and urinary calcium phosphate

The isoflavones isolated from heartwood of Eysenhardtia polystachya: 7-hydroxy-2’, 4’, 5’-trimethoxyisoflavone [A] y 7-hydroxy-4’-etoxyisoflavone [B] showed significant dose dependent protection against urolithiasis induced by zinc disc implantation in albino rats. The change of oxalate concentration in urines normal, abnormal and artificial treated with isoflavone [A] was reduced in 64.23, 38.6 y 22.43% respectively. When the compound [B] was added reduced in 55.95, 18.62 y 20.32% respectively. The activity of compounds [A] on the formation of phosphate for normal abnormal and artificial urines were of 70.31, 44.57 y 38.61% respectively. With the added of compound [B] were reduced in 63.8, 40.61 y 30.16% respectively. The compounds [A] and [B] produced significantly lowering growth rate and nucleation rate of calcium oxalate crystals at concentration of 4.6 X 10-4 M exerted a maximum response of 89% and 72% reduction respectively.

Conclusion: The isolated isoflavones [A] and [B] from E. polystachya work as inhibitors in the formation and crystal growth of COM and phosphate and may protect against stone formation by reducing the degree of aggregation and the size of particles precipitated. These compounds can be recomended as a preventive medicine in renal stone formation.



(Jan 21, 2016) Diuretic activity of the bark of Eysenhardtia polystachya

The present results reveal that E. polystachya aqueous extract (500 and 750 mg/kg) induced an important diuretic action because increments in the urinary flow and urinary excretion of sodium similar to furosemide were shown.

The bark of E. polystachya induces an increase on urinary excretion of water and sodium, similar to furosemide, but with the advantage of a potassium-saving effect. These findings support the claims of diuretic efficacy of the bark of E. polystachya (Palo Azul) in Mexican Traditional Medicine.



(2006) Herbal medicine of the American Southwest : a guide to the medicinal and edible plants of the Southwestern United States

If prone to acidic, overly concentrated urine, associated kidney stones and urinary tract sediment then Kidneywood (palo azul) will be of use. Because of the plant’s alkalinizing nature, acidic precipitants dissolve back into the urine, thereby reducing pain and urinary tract irritability associated with lithic deposits. Kidney wood is soothing to kidney and urinary tract irritability.




(June 28, 2007) Estudio Etnobotánico de Eysenhardtia Polystachia (Ort.) Sarg. En una Comunidad del Municipio de Zempola, Hidalgo, y Evaluación del Efecto Diurético en Rata

The results of this study are as follows. The following flavonoids have been found (in Palo Azul): dimethoxy-methylenedioxy-pterocarpan and dehydrorotenone, sterol betasistosterol, triterpene beta-amirine, flavonoids coatline A and B and coumarin flemichaparin (12) have been found.

These flavonones have been identified with antibacterial and antifungal activity. Recent studies have "evaluated the effect of isoflavones isolated from the bark of Eysenhardtia Polystachia( blue stick) on the growth of urinary crystals confirming the use of the plant in urolitasis (25).”The infusion or decoction is used for kidney problems, urinary tract pains, kidney calculi, and as deflamatory. Eysenhardtia Polystachia (Palo Azul) according to the results of the study etnobotanico Eysenhardtia Polystachia (Palo Azul) is a plant used mainly to treat kidney disease.



(Feb, 2009) Activity of extracts from two Eysenhardtia species against microorganisms related to urinary tract infections

Polystachya is a tree used widely in traditional Mexican medicine as a herbal remedy and is native to north-eastern Mexico, especially in the Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas states. The E. texana tree is also known as kidneywood because of its use for kidney and bladder complaints. This tree is distributed throughout south-central USA and northern and central Mexico. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of E. polystachya and E. texana against nine species of bacteria and one species of yeast related to urinary tract infections.

Methanolic extracts of Eysenhardtia polystachya and E. texana were active against S. epidermidis (mean inhibition: 1.75 cm for both extracts). In addition, E. polystachya was active against Proteus vulgaris (mean inhibition: 1.75 cm), Enterbacter aerogenes (mean inhibition: 1.75 cm) and S. aureus (mean inhibition: 1.25 cm). The bacteria included in this study are the most frequent causal agents of urinary tract infection.

Conclusion: According to the results of this study, methanolic extract of E. polystachya has broad-spectrum effect because the antibacterial activity observed included both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms.

Based on these results, the isolation and characterisation of active compounds from E. polystachya is particularly important in light of the multidrug resistance observed in certain Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria,12,13 against which only a few therapeutic options are available.



(Jul 2004) Effect of isoflavones from Eysenhardtia polystachya as inhibitors of calcium oxalate crystal aggregation

In this study was evaluated the inhibitory effect of 7-hydroxy-2′,4′,5′-trime-thoxyisoflavone (1) and 7-hydroxy-4′-ethoxyisoflavone (2) isolated from bark of E. polystachya on aggregation calcium oxalate crystals in two different assay with a non-crystal-seed system.

Both isoflavones showed a marked inhibitory activity on crystal aggregation on urine non-stone-formers, whereas in urine from recurrent stone-formers and simulated orine showed less inhibitory activity compared to normal urine.

Conclusion: Also the effect of the isoflavones (1) and (2) on crystal growth of calcium oxalate (COM) at conditions of constant solution supersaturation was determined. The isolated isoflavones 7-hydroxy-2′,4′,5′-trimethoxyisoflavone and 7-hydroxy-4′-ethoxyisoflavone from E. polystacha work as inhibitors in the formation and crystal growth of calcium oxalate, reduced the degree of aggregation and the size of particles precipitated.



(Jan-May, 2007) Herbal Drugs in Urolithiasis - A Review

The present review aims to give data highlighting the present trends in research of medicinal plants accredited with antiurolithiatic activity.

Antiurolithiatic activitiy of two compounds viz., 7-hydroxy2',4’,5'-trimethoxyisoflavone and 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxy isoflavone isolated from the heart wood of Eysenhardtia polystachya was studied in rats by observing calculus formation experimentally induced by zinc discs. A significant decrease in urinary stone size was observed in animals treated with these compounds (23).

Conclusion: As the present review illustrates, a number of medicinal plants are evaluated mainly against calcium oxalate and magnesium ammonium phosphate types of kidney stones, employing various experimental models of urolithiasis. Further, chemical studies of the plants are needed to isolate the active principles and investigate them in order to identify a promising lead compound. Currently, in the management of urinary stones surgical procedures and extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy are commonly employed. The major drawback of these procedures is recurrence of stones. The plant products and derivatives of their lead compounds as such may not replace these procedures but may surely help in decreasing the recurrence rate of renal calculi.



(Dec 18, 1998) Antiurolithiatic activity of Eysenhardtia polystachya aqueous extract on rats

The aqueous extract of the bark of Eysenhardtia polystachya was tested for its antilithiatic and diuretic activity. The urolithiasis was induced experimentally by implantation of a zinc disc in to the urinary bladder of rats. A significant decrease in the weight of stones was observed after treatment in animals that received aqueous extract compared with control groups. This extract showed an increase in the 24 h urine volume compared with the control. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.



Medical study of Urology College of Mexico with collaboration of Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco

Another study looked at how isoflavones (a crystalline compound found in plants) from Palo Azul protected against kidney stones. They were looking to see if the isoflavones could stop the creation of calcium oxalate (the medical name for the most common type of kidney stones). They found that the isolated isoflavones in Palo Azul stopped the formation of calcium oxalate crystal growth in rats. They also put in their conclusion that you can take Palo Azul as a preventative measure to avoid kidney stone growth. This research was done by the Urology College of Mexico with collaboration with Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco

Palo Azul (Cyclolepis Genistoides)

"Traditionally, it is used as a diuretic to treat kidney problems, diarrhea with blood, colic pain, and gallstones. Due to its powerful natural diuretic properties and without contraindication, it is ideal to help remove liquids from the body and to expel kidney stones."

(Oct 22, 2008) Antiurolithiatic Activity of 7-Hydroxy-2,4,5- Trimethoxyisoflavone and 7-Hydroxy-4 -Methoxyisoflavone from Eysenhardtia polystachya

The antilithiatic and diuretic activity of 7-hydroxy-2′,4′,5′-trimethoxyisoflavone and 7-hydroxy-4′-methoxyisoflavone, isolated in aqueous extracts of the heartwood of Eysenhardtia polystachya, was tested in rats by observing calculus formation (experimentally induced by implantation of a zinc disc in the urinary bladder) and urine production.

Conclusion: A significant decrease in urinary stone size was observed in animals treated with the compounds as compared with animals in control groups. The compounds also increased 24 h urine volume in rats as compared with the control animals not receiving the test compounds.

palo azul antidiabetic

Anti-Diabetic

(May 1, 2018) Protection of silver nanoparticles using Eysenhardtia polystachya in peroxide-induced pancreatic β-Cell damage and their antidiabetic properties in zebrafish

The aim was to explore the efficacy of extract of Eysenhardtia polystachya-loaded silver nanoparticles (EP/AgNPs) on pancreatic β cells, INS-1 cells, and zebrafish as a valuable model for the study of diabetes mellitus. EP/AgNPs promote pancreatic β-cell survival, insulin secretion, enhanced hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia in glucose-induced diabetic zebrafish. EP/AgNPs also showed protection of the pancreatic β-cell line INS-1 against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative injury.

The tree Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ortega) Sarg, which belongs to the family Leguminosae, is known as “palo azul” and has been widely used as an antirheumatic and in the treatment of nephrolithiasis and bladder disorders that occur in diabetes.27 Phytochemical studies indicate that E. polystachya contains polyphenols.28 In another study, isoflavans displayed the moderate cytotoxic activity against KB cell lines.29 A methanol–water extract of the bark of E. polystachya showed antioxidant potential, hypoglycemic effects, and inhibition of the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs).30 The effect of flavonoids isolated from the bark of E. polystachya on oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetes mellitus in mice was also examined.31 In other research, we determined that dihydrochalcones inhibit the formation of AGEs.32 The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of E. polystachya-loaded silver nanoparticles (EP/AgNPs) on glucose-induced diabetic zebrafish and peroxide-induced pancreatic INS-1 cell damage.

Treatment with EP/AgNPs alone or in the presence of H2O2 could ameliorate insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism (Figure 6). EP/AgNPs promote pancreatic β-cell survival, insulin secretion-enhanced hyperglycemia, and hypolipidemia. These results confirming the effectiveness of nanoparticles in ameliorating hyperglycemia.

EP/AgNP treatment may provide beneficial effects on the function of insulin secretion through its protective effect on pancreatic β cells.48 In addition, a zebrafish model was used to confirm the antidiabetic efficacy of EP/AgNPs on experimental diabetic animals.

The findings demonstrated that diabetic fish had higher serum insulin concentrations than control zebrafish, suggesting pancreatic β-cell damage in this group, while EP/AgNPs at a dose of 100 µg/mL resulted in decreased plasma insulin levels (by 54%) compared with the glucose-induced diabetic fish group, which was similar to normoglycemic control zebrafish (Figure 8B). The results confirm the ability of EP/AgNPs to ameliorate cell viability and insulin secretion in zebrafish under high glucose concentrations. In this study, the treatments of zebrafish glucose-induced diabetes with EP/AgNPs were consistent with those reported in previous studies, confirming the effectiveness of nanoparticles in ameliorating hyperglycemia.

Conclusion: The results indicate that EP/AgNPs have good antidiabetic activity and therefore could be used to prevent the development of diabetes. The biosynthesized AgNPs from bark methanol/water extract of E. polystachya contain bioactive compounds such as chalcones, flavonoids, and dihydrochalcones, which play a determinant role in the phytofabrication of the AgNPs. EP/AgNPs promote pancreatic β-cell survival, insulin secretion-enhanced hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia in glucose-induced diabetic zebrafish. In addition, EP/AgNPs restore insulin secretion from INS-1 cells stimulated by H2O2, suggesting that this could result from cytoprotection against oxidative injury. These findings suggest that EP/AgNPs could be used as therapeutic nanoparticles to prevent the development of diabetes.




(Nov 2013) Cyclolepis genistoides D. Don (palo azul) promotes differentiation of adipocytes and regulates adipokine expression

Palo Azul has been reported to exhibit many physiological effects that contribute to the prevention of metabolic syndromes, although its mechanism is unclear. Among Palo Azul’s various activities, we investigated the hypothesis that palo promotes adipocytes differentiation and regulates adipokine profiles in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, a major regulator of adipose differentiation.

Conclusion: Real-time polymerase chain reaction and luciferase reporter assay showed that Palo Azul up-regulated expression and transcriptional activity of PPARγ. Furthermore, Palo Azul increased the expression of insulin-sensitizing adipokine, adiponectin, which is a directly target of PPARγ, both at the messenger RNA level and at the protein level. In summary, Palo Azul demonstrated the potential to improve insulin resistance by promoting adipocyte differentiation via PPARγ activation. Results suggest an increase in adiponectin secretion and a decrease in insulin-resistant factors such as leptin and resistin.



(July 2016) Ethanol extract of Cyclolepis genistoides D. Don (palo azul) induces formation of myotubes, which involves differentiation of C2C12 myoblast cells

Hiromi Sato, Asami Funaki, Yuki Kimura, Mai Sumitomo, Hiroya Yoshida, Hideki Fukata, Koichi Ueno

In this study, we examined the cell differentiation effect of an ethanol extract of Cyclolepis genistoides D. Don, a herbaceous perennial belonging to the family Asteraceae (vernacular name: palo azul). Palo Azul has numerous physiological effects that contribute to the prevention of metabolic syndromes, although the mechanism remains unclear. We previously suggested that Palo Azul has antidiabetic activity via an adipose differentiation effect.

In conclusion, Palo Azul may increase muscle mass in the body and improve insulin resistance conditions by facilitating the formation of myotubes by promoting myocyte differentiation.

(Winter 2018) The Ethanolic Extract of Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ort.) Sarg. Bark and Its Fractions Delay the Progression of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Show Antinociceptive Activity in Murine Models

Eysenhardtia polystachya is widely used in folk medicine as an anti-rheumatic and analgesic agent, but no systematic study of its effects on several markers associated with rheumatoid arthritis and its ethnomedical use as analgesic agent has been performed. We evaluated the anti-arthritic and antinociceptive properties of an ethanolic extract of E. polystachya (EE) bark and its rich-flavonoids fractions in murine models. Many plant constituents, including flavonoids, have proven effective against arthritis by reducing cartilage degradation, diminishing leukocyte infiltration in the synovial space, decreasing serum cytokine levels, and other mechanisms (9). Phytochemical studies indicate that E. polystachya contains polyphenols, and previous chemical examination of this species led to the isolation and structural elucidation of several flavonoids (11, 12). The methanol-water extract showed antidiabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, an ability to reduce the formation of advanced glycation end products, and an antioxidant capacity in-vitro (12).

Conclusion: EE and its rich-flavonoids fractions inhibited secondary inflammatory reactions, diminished the specific histopathological alterations in the joint capsule and reduced the serum concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and GM-CSF in arthritic rats. EE also reduced the number of writhes produced by acetic acid and increased the response time on the hot plate for mice. Our findings support the use of Eysenhardtia polystachya bark for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and pain management.

In conclusion, the ethanolic extract of Eysenhardtia polystachya bark and its rich-flavonoids fractions inhibited secondary inflammatory reactions in arthritic rats and delayed histopathological alterations of joint capsules. Eysenhardtia polystachya also decreased the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and GM-CSF and showed antinociceptive activity at the peripheral and central levels, which suggests that this plant has an effect on the cellular immune response. These findings support the use of Eysenhardtia polystachya in Mexican folk medicine for treating rheumatoid arthritis and pain management.

(March 16, 2001) Antihyperglycemic Activity and Chemical Constituents of Eysenhardtia platycarpa

The methanolic extracts from branches (BEP) and leaves (LEP) of Eysenhardtia platycarpa significantly decreased the blood glucose levels in normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. 3-O-Acetyloleanolic acid (7), identified as the major constituent of BEP, showed a significant decrease (31 mg/kg of body weight, P < 0.05) in the glucose level of STZ induced diabetic rats. The obtained results correlate with the traditional use of this species.

palo azul antiviral antibacterial

Antiviral & Antibacterial

(Oct, 2018) Pharmacological and toxicological study of a chemical-standardized ethanol extract of the branches and leaves from Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ortega) Sarg. (Fabaceae)

Eysenhardtia polystachya is used for the empirical treatment of cancer, infections, diarrhea, inflammation, and pain. This study identified, using GC-MS, the main chemical components in an ethanol extract of E. polystachya branches and leaves (EPE) and tested its cytotoxic, antimicrobial, anti-diarrheal, anti-inflammatory, and antinociceptive effects.

Conclusion: EPE exerted in vitro anti-inflammatory effects, mainly, by the decrease in the production of H2O2 (IC50 = 43.9 ± 3.8 µg/ml), and IL-6 (73.3 ± 6.9 µg/ml). EPE (ED50 =7.5 ± 0.9 mg/kg) and D-pinitol (ED50 = 0.1 ± 0.03 mg/kg) showed antidiarrheal activity, and antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid test with ED50 = 117 ± 14.5 mg/kg for EPE and 33 ± 3.2 mg/kg for D-pinitol. EPE showed also antinociceptive activity in the phase 2 of the formalin test (ED50 = 48.9 ± 3.9 mg/kg), without inducing hypnotic effects or altering the locomotor activity in mice. Furthermore, EPE lacked cytotoxic activity (IC50 > 300 µg/ml) on human cancer cells, but showed good antimicrobial effects in E. coli (MIC=1.56 µg/ml) and S. aureus (MIC = 0.78 µg/ml). The results here presented corroborate the folk medicinal use of Eysenhardtia polystachya in the treatment of infections, diarrhea, inflammation, and pain. D-pinitol, the main metabolite of EPE, showed antinociceptive and antidiarrheal effects with similar potency compared to standard drugs.



(June 14, 2012) Ethnobotanical survey and antibacterial activity of plants used in the Altiplane region of Mexico for the treatment of oral cavity infections

The ethnobotanical survey conducted in this study showed 47 plant species used in the Altiplane region of Mexico for the treatment of dental diseases such as toothache, dental caries, periodontal disease and gingivitis. The most frequent uses were to treat tooth pain, gum diseases, bad breath and cavities. Infusions were the most frequently prepared formulation.

The ethanolic extracts of Bursera simaruba, Cedrela odorata and Rhus standleyi (12.5–65.0 μg/mL) as well as water extracts of Haematoxylon brasiletto, Punica granatum, Iostephane heterophyla, Amphipterygium adstringens, Argemone mexicana, Eysenhardtia polystachya (Palo Azul), Persea americana, Syzygium aromaticum, Cinnamomun zeylanicum, Cnidoscolus multilobus and Rhus standleyi (10.5–78.0 μg/mL) showed the highest inhibitory effect against Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis.

Conclusion: Many plants are used in the Mexican traditional medicine to treat oral bacterial diseases by the healers or patients. Our study demonstrated that most of the medicinal plants showed an antibacterial effect in vitro, and justified at least in part their use in traditional medicine. These results encourage further investigations to extract and identify the active chemical compounds responsible for the antibacterial effect observed.




ACTIVIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA DE LOS EXTRACTOS DE Eysenhardtia polystachya texana

Objective: to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of extracts of Eysenhardtia polystachya and E. texana, against microorganisms of medical importance.

Conclusions: the extract of E. polystachya presented activity against E. aerogenes, P. vulgaris, S. aureus and S. epidermidis, presents flavonoids, sesquiterpenlactones, unsaturations, phenolic oxhydrils



palo azul arthritis and back pain studies

Sciatic Nerve, Back Pain and Arthritis

    (Winter 2018) The Ethanolic Extract of Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ort.) Sarg. Bark and Its Fractions Delay the Progression of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Show Antinociceptive Activity in Murine Models

    Eysenhardtia polystachya is widely used in folk medicine as an anti-rheumatic and analgesic agent, but no systematic study of its effects on several markers associated with rheumatoid arthritis and its ethnomedical use as analgesic agent has been performed. We evaluated the anti-arthritic and antinociceptive properties of an ethanolic extract of E. polystachya (EE) bark and its rich-flavonoids fractions in murine models. Many plant constituents, including flavonoids, have proven effective against arthritis by reducing cartilage degradation, diminishing leukocyte infiltration in the synovial space, decreasing serum cytokine levels, and other mechanisms (9). Phytochemical studies indicate that E. polystachya contains polyphenols, and previous chemical examination of this species led to the isolation and structural elucidation of several flavonoids (11, 12). The methanol-water extract showed antidiabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, an ability to reduce the formation of advanced glycation end products, and an antioxidant capacity in-vitro (12).

    Conclusion: EE and its rich-flavonoids fractions inhibited secondary inflammatory reactions, diminished the specific histopathological alterations in the joint capsule and reduced the serum concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and GM-CSF in arthritic rats. EE also reduced the number of writhes produced by acetic acid and increased the response time on the hot plate for mice. Our findings support the use of Eysenhardtia polystachya bark for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and pain management.

    In conclusion, the ethanolic extract of Eysenhardtia polystachya bark and its rich-flavonoids fractions inhibited secondary inflammatory reactions in arthritic rats and delayed histopathological alterations of joint capsules. Eysenhardtia polystachya also decreased the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and GM-CSF and showed antinociceptive activity at the peripheral and central levels, which suggests that this plant has an effect on the cellular immune response. These findings support the use of Eysenhardtia polystachya in Mexican folk medicine for treating rheumatoid arthritis and pain management.






    (Feb 29, 2015) Evolution of anti-inflammatory activity of the bark of Eysenhardtia polystachia in experimental animal models

    Our data indicate that PAM exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in all the trials of paw and ear edema induced exhibiting also anti-arthritic activity. PAM could also markedly inhibit production of pro inflammatory cytokines, especially TNF(alpha), IL-1(beta), PGE(2) and LTB(4). These effects resulted in an attenuation of the inflammatory cytokines and ultimately suppression of the edema. The extras also inhibited lipoxygenase and xanthine-oxidase. It was seen that PAM is effective on chronic inflammation and acute inflammation.

    The methanol extract (PAM) exhibited significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory activity in all assays, instead hexane and chloroform extracts showed no anti-inflammatory activity.

    PAM possesses significantly dose-related anti arthritic activity in M. tuberculosis-induced adjacent arthritis test in rat, which is considered close to simulating human rheumatoid arthritis.

    The results of this study demonstrated that methanol extract of the bark of E.poystachya acts as an anti-inflammatory agent. It also can be a good source of effective crude inhibitors for XO and LOX. The finding presented in this study are encouraging an substantiate the search for newer pharmacophores in palo azul behind the anti-inflammatory effect.





    (May 25, 2011) Anti-inflammatory properties from isolated compounds of Cyclolepis genistoides

    Phytochemical studies of the aqueous extract of C. genistoides showed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, tannins, and anthraquinones. Instead, oleanolic acid (1) and the sesquiterpene lactone deacylcynaropicrin (2), which have been previously reported in this plant (De Heluani et. al., 1997), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract. Compound 1 exhibited significant activity at 1, 3, 5, and 7 h, while compound 2 showed significant inhibition at 3 and 5 h.

    Conclusions: From the results obtained in this work, we can conclude that the intraperitoneal administration of both isolated compounds from C. genistoides showed a significant inhibition of the carrageenan-induced inflammation at doses of 75 and 100 mg/kg, while the dose of 40 mg/kg did not produce a significant anti-inflammatory effect. Considering that compounds 1 and 2 were isolated from aerial parts of C. genistoides, these results give support to the use of this plant as an anti-inflammatory in traditional medicine.




    (Oct, 2018) Pharmacological and toxicological study of a chemical-standardized ethanol extract of the branches and leaves from Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ortega) Sarg. (Fabaceae)

    Eysenhardtia polystachya is used for the empirical treatment of cancer, infections, diarrhea, inflammation, and pain. This study identified, using GC-MS, the main chemical components in an ethanol extract of E. polystachya branches and leaves (EPE) and tested its cytotoxic, antimicrobial, anti-diarrheal, anti-inflammatory, and antinociceptive effects.

    Conclusion: EPE exerted in vitro anti-inflammatory effects, mainly, by the decrease in the production of H2O2 (IC50 = 43.9 ± 3.8 µg/ml), and IL-6 (73.3 ± 6.9 µg/ml). EPE (ED50 =7.5 ± 0.9 mg/kg) and D-pinitol (ED50 = 0.1 ± 0.03 mg/kg) showed antidiarrheal activity, and antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid test with ED50 = 117 ± 14.5 mg/kg for EPE and 33 ± 3.2 mg/kg for D-pinitol. EPE showed also antinociceptive activity in the phase 2 of the formalin test (ED50 = 48.9 ± 3.9 mg/kg), without inducing hypnotic effects or altering the locomotor activity in mice. The results here presented corroborate the folk medicinal use of Eysenhardtia polystachya in the treatment of infections, diarrhea, inflammation, and pain. D-pinitol, the main metabolite of EPE, showed antinociceptive and antidiarrheal effects with similar potency compared to standard drugs.

    (2012) Flavonoid intake and bone health

    Flavonoids, found in a wide diversity of plant foods from fruits and vegetables, herbs and spices, essential oils, and beverages, have the most potential of dietary components for promotion of bone health beyond calcium and vitamin D. Recent epidemiological studies show flavonoid consumption to have a stronger association with bone than general fruit and vegetable consumption. Bioactive flavonoids are being assessed for properties beyond their chemical antioxidant capacity, including anti-inflammatory actions. Some have been reported to enhance bone formation and to inhibit bone resorption through their action on cell signaling pathways that influence osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation.

    (2010) Transgenic inhibition of glial NF-kappa B reduces pain behavior and inflammation after peripheral nerve injury

    We utilized a transgenic mouse model (GFAP-IκBα-dn) where the classical NF-κB pathway is inactivated by overexpression of a dominant negative (dn) form of the inhibitor of kappa B (IκBα) in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-expressing cells, which include astrocytes, Schwann cells, and satellite cells of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and sought to determine whether glial NF-κB inhibition leads to a reduction in pain behavior and inflammation following chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve.

    We can therefore conclude that transgenic inhibition of NF-κB in GFAP-expressing glial cells attenuated pain and inflammation after peripheral nerve injury. These findings suggest that targeting the inflammatory response in Schwann cells and satellite cells may be important in treating neuropathic pain.

    (2019) Sciatica Nerve Pain

    While sciatica is most commonly a result of a lumbar disc herniation directly pressing on the nerve, any cause of irritation or inflammation of the sciatic nerve can produce the symptoms of sciatica. This irritation of nerves as a result of an abnormal intervertebral disc is referred to as radiculopathy.

    Medications used in the treatment of sciatica include pain relievers, muscle relaxants, anti-inflammatories, and antidepressants.

    The duration of sciatica is critically dependent on its cause. A herniated disc, back sprain, shingles, and degenerative lumbar spine can all cause temporary forms of sciatica, lasting from days to weeks. Each can also cause chronic sciatica. Sometimes degeneration of the lumbar spine and discs can cause chronic sciatica that persists unless a surgical intervention is performed.

    Keys to the management of acute sciatica include relief of pain and relaxing associated muscle spasms. Home remedies include heat and cold pack topical administration, over-the-counter pain medications such as acetaminophen (Tylenol), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like naproxen (Aleve), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), and aspirin, and physical therapy that incorporates gradual exercises and stretching. Exercises and stretching can sometimes best be guided by physical therapists.

    (2008) Development of a capillary electrophoresis method for the characterization of “palo azul” (Eysenhardtia polystachya)

    The plant has been used in traditional treatments of nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis [2], lumbalgia, arthritis, rheumatism, sciatica, and as blood depurative because it eliminates uric acid, of which application the palo azul derives its diuretic and antirheumatic fame. For inges- tion purposes, the wood chips are brought to boil in water to produce a golden-colored liquor having a light blue fluorescence, from which the sick can take two or three cups a day [3].

    Among the E. polystachya components, there can be found polyphenol compounds, tannins, or flavonoid compounds [5, 6], which are a variable and complex mix- ture of bitter, astringent chemicals, although in general these are esters from one kind of sugar having a variable number of phenol acids [7].

    (Feb 29, 2015) Evolution of anti-inflammatory activity of the bark of Eysenhardtia polystachia in experimental animal models

    Our data indicate that PAM exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in all the trials of paw and ear edema induced exhibiting also anti-arthritic activity. PAM could also markedly inhibit production of pro inflammatory cytokines, especially TNF(alpha), IL-1(beta), PGE(2) and LTB(4). These effects resulted in an attenuation of the inflammatory cytokines and ultimately suppression of the edema. The extras also inhibited lipoxygenase and xanthine-oxidase. It was seen that PAM is effective on chronic inflammation and acute inflammation.

    The methanol extract (PAM) exhibited significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory activity in all assays, instead hexane and chloroform extracts showed no anti-inflammatory activity.

    PAM possesses significantly dose-related anti arthritic activity in M. tuberculosis-induced adjacent arthritis test in rat, which is considered close to simulating human rheumatoid arthritis.

    The results of this study demonstrated that methanol extract of the bark of E.poystachya acts as an anti-inflammatory agent. It also can be a good source of effective crude inhibitors for XO and LOX. The finding presented in this study are encouraging an substantiate the search for newer pharmacophores in palo azul behind the anti-inflammatory effect.




    (May 25, 2011) Anti-inflammatory properties from isolated compounds of Cyclolepis genistoides

    Phytochemical studies of the aqueous extract of C. genistoides showed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, tannins, and anthraquinones. Instead, oleanolic acid (1) and the sesquiterpene lactone deacylcynaropicrin (2), which have been previously reported in this plant (De Heluani et. al., 1997), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract. Compound 1 exhibited significant activity at 1, 3, 5, and 7 h, while compound 2 showed significant inhibition at 3 and 5 h.

    Conclusions: From the results obtained in this work, we can conclude that the intraperitoneal administration of both isolated compounds from C. genistoides showed a significant inhibition of the carrageenan-induced inflammation at doses of 75 and 100 mg/kg, while the dose of 40 mg/kg did not produce a significant anti-inflammatory effect. Considering that compounds 1 and 2 were isolated from aerial parts of C. genistoides, these results give support to the use of this plant as an anti-inflammatory in traditional medicine.



    (Oct, 2018) Pharmacological and toxicological study of a chemical-standardized ethanol extract of the branches and leaves from Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ortega) Sarg. (Fabaceae)

    Eysenhardtia polystachya is used for the empirical treatment of cancer, infections, diarrhea, inflammation, and pain. This study identified, using GC-MS, the main chemical components in an ethanol extract of E. polystachya branches and leaves (EPE) and tested its cytotoxic, antimicrobial, anti-diarrheal, anti-inflammatory, and antinociceptive effects.

    Conclusion: EPE exerted in vitro anti-inflammatory effects, mainly, by the decrease in the production of H2O2 (IC50 = 43.9 ± 3.8 µg/ml), and IL-6 (73.3 ± 6.9 µg/ml). EPE (ED50 =7.5 ± 0.9 mg/kg) and D-pinitol (ED50 = 0.1 ± 0.03 mg/kg) showed antidiarrheal activity, and antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid test with ED50 = 117 ± 14.5 mg/kg for EPE and 33 ± 3.2 mg/kg for D-pinitol. EPE showed also antinociceptive activity in the phase 2 of the formalin test (ED50 = 48.9 ± 3.9 mg/kg), without inducing hypnotic effects or altering the locomotor activity in mice. The results here presented corroborate the folk medicinal use of Eysenhardtia polystachya in the treatment of infections, diarrhea, inflammation, and pain. D-pinitol, the main metabolite of EPE, showed antinociceptive and antidiarrheal effects with similar potency compared to standard drugs.





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    OK now this really is the end. If you’re reading this, I have to say I’m impressed! Feel free to text me at 754-422-3361 and ask me anything…like how long it took me to write this perhaps. I’ll probably send you some free Palo Azul since I can see you like it so much!

    This message is approved by the co-founder of MagickTea.

    Julian Serrano