Palo Azul Detox

palo azul detox

13 Medical studies show that Palo Azul can Detox your body!

Palo Azul’s anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capabilities are among its best known and most studied benefits. In fact, we reviewed THIRTEEN different medical studies whose results concluded that Palo Azul exhibited anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant activity or anti-glycative activity.

  1. First, we’re going to go over everything you need to know about the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-glycative properties of palo azul and its flavonoids.
  2. Secondly, we will cover how these properties can help you detox your body :)


I. Properties

¿What are antioxidants?

palo azul and antioxidant fruits

Antioxidants are compounds such as vitamins or phytochemicals (carotenoids or flavonoids) that inhibit oxidative stress. They protect the tissue from free radical damage and because of this, prevent inflammation in the body.

What is oxidative stress?

oxidative stress

Oxidative stress is an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants in the body.

What are free radicals?

Free radicals are atoms with a single valence electron that cause damage to the body associated with diabetes, cancer, aging, atherosclerosis, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and many other diseases.

free radicals and oxidative stress formation

This happens because electrons like to be in pairs... and for this reason, free radicals look for "free" electrons in the body. This causes damage to cells, proteins, DNA and these damaged molecules can mutate, grow tumors, and damage the DNA code. Eventually, this cellular damage causes new cells to grow with defects and it will lead to aging and degenerative diseases.

What are anti-inflammatories?

Anti-inflammatories are precursors of molecules responsible for signaling out the resolution of inflammation. In other words, they reduce inflammation by blocking inflammatory signals.

For example, Omega-3s are anti-inflammatory, and without them, we have less ability to fight inflammation due to our inability to block inflammatory signals.

omega 3 antiinflammatories

How can you avoid inflammation and oxidative stress in your body?

Here is a short list of anti-inflammatory / antioxidant foods you should eat and a general list of pro-inflammatory / oxidative foods you should reduce in your diet.

Antiinflammatory and antioxidant foods: vegetables, fruits, nuts, seeds, fatty fish, olive oil, turmuric, cocoa and teas such as palo azul

palo azul and antiinflammatory foods

Inflammatory and oxidative foods: foods that are heavily processed and have high fructose content, trans fats and refined carbs

hamburger and fries lead to oxidative stress

There are many citations of studies on this topic, so be prepared if you plan to read all the medical studies... or you can simply read our key points that we have summarized below:)


But first…we want to quickly cover an extremely important compound that Palo Azul protects against called AGEs (advanced glycation end products).

What is anti-glycation? What are AGEs?

AGEs are harmful compounds that are considered to play an important role in the process of aging and in degenerative diseases such as diabetes, cancer, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, cardiovascular disease and others.

This is the reason why you should be eating vegetables, fruits, and drinking palo azul tea every day!

book with palo azul benefits and studies


Palo Azul vs Oxidative Stress

palo azul antioxidant

7 different studies showed that Palo Azul possesses considerable antioxidant activity, protects against oxidative injury and inhibits oxidative stress.

5 different studies concluded in their results that Palo Azul reduced or inhibited the formation of AGEs (advanced glycation end products).

4 different studies suggested that Palo Azul’s anti-glycation ability could be used to prevent diabetes complications.

Some of these studies found compounds in Palo Azul such as flavonoids, methanol and dihydrochalcone, which induce an anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant effect.

One particular study stated the following: “Our results in this experiment showed that Palo Azul has an antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and significant ability to reduce the formation of AGEs and antioxidant activities, which are considered to play important roles in the development of diabetes complications.”

Another study found that “treatment with dihydrochalcone (a powerful ant-glycation compound isolated from Palo Azul) protects renal function and prevents kidney injury.”

One study done on zebrafish embryos stated that “methanol extract of Eysenhardtia polystachya (Palo Azul) provides “an effective defense against oxidative stress in zebrafish embryos.”


Palo Azul vs Inflammation

palo azul antiinflammatory

6 different studies concluded in their results that Palo Azul induced a significant inhibition of inflammation and/or showed anti-inflammatory activity.

Several studies show that “methanol, ethanol, or flavonoids in Palo Azul act as anti-inflammatory agents.”

One study in particular found that the ethanol extract of Palo Azul and its rich-flavonoids fractions “inhibited secondary inflammatory reactions in arthritic rats.”

palo azul joint pain

Another study concluded that Palo Azul is "effective for chronic inflammation and acute inflammation.”

Other studies found that Palo Azul ameliorated markers of inflammation and that it “exerted in-vitro anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing production of H2O2 and IL-6.”

II. How can antioxidants help you?

    They help you lose weight

    woman losing weight with palo azul

    One study analyzed 2754 twins and found that the group that consumed the most flavonoids:

    • Had less percentage of fat
    • Burned more fat in the abdomen

    Specifically, the researchers found that the twins with the highest consumption of flavonoid-rich foods (onions, tea, apples, pears, and cocoa) “had a 3-9% lower FMR (fat mass ratio) than that of their co-twins.”

    Moreover, the researchers found that the “women who ate a lot of flavonoid-rich foods had a lower percentage of body fat than women who ate less. The amount of abdominal fat also differed significantly between the two groups.”

    The researchers of this study also point out that “It is important to note that abdominal fat is an important risk factor for diseases such as type 2 diabetes and heart problems.”

    girl losing weight palo azul

    Another study looked at 124,000 people and found that "flavonoids increase energy expenditure, decrease fat absorption and function as anti-inflammatories. The researchers in this same study found that "increased consumption of most flavonoid subclasses was associated with reduced weight gain.”

    They also mentioned that the participants that consumed more flavonoids maintained their weight better and even lost some weight and they concluded the following:

    "Our results suggest that choosing fruits and vegetables that are high in flavonoids, such as apples, pears, berries and peppers, can help with weight control."

    You can read the full article here: Palo Azul for Weight Loss

    They protect against wrinkles

    woman with antioxidant skin cream

    Victoria Lewis, a doctor of dermatology mentions that “antioxidants are often considered the fountain of youth by skin-care professionals and experts.”

    “Not only do they (antioxidants) scavenge free radicals—the number one skin-aging culprits—to promote a brighter, more even complexion, they’re also the superstars at nixing fine lines and keeping skin looking fresh.”

    This is due to its ability to eliminate oxidative stress and free radicals, which are “the number one skin-aging culprits.”

    This oxidative stress causes damage to our cells, and this damage eventually leads to aging and wrinkles in our skin.

    Another doctor of dermatology, Dr. Mack, writes that “antioxidants protect your skin from this (oxidative stress) and help reduce pigmentation and fine lines and wrinkles.” He goes on to mention that in his opinion, “an antioxidant serum is a must for your skin-care routine.”

    For this reason, many pharmaceutical and cosmetic companies supplement their skin care products with tea extracts!

    You can read the full article here: Palo Azul vs Aging and Wrinkles

    Reduce your risk of cancer

    palo azul vs cancer

    We read two medical reviews composed of findings from 327 studies done specifically on flavonoids, and found that oxidative stress can lead to cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and aging ... For this reason, they found that antioxidants show potential to fight these diseases.

    Therefore, diets rich in antioxidants decrease the cancer-promoting action of free radicals and oxidative stress. One of the studies we reviewed found that fruits and vegetables that have flavonoids have been reported as cancer chemopreventive agents and are inversely associated with cancer incidence.

    *Here’s a very interesting fact for wine drinkers: “Moderate wine drinkers also seem to have a lower risk to develop cancer of the lung, endometrium, esophagus, stomach, and colon.”

    Thank you flavonoids!

    wine reduces risk of cancer

    We also read a study that recruited 1522 breast cancer cases and 1547 frequency control subjects from June 2007 to July 2018 in Guangdong, China. The results of this study indicated that consumption of “flavonoids and most flavonoid subclasses intakes were inversely associated with breast cancer risk.”

    You can read the full article here: Palo Azul vs. Cancer

    Finally, “the critical relationship of fruit and vegetable intake and cancer prevention has been thoroughly documented. It has been suggested that major public health benefits could be achieved by substantially increasing consumption of these foods.”

    In other words... oxidation in our body leads to cancer and other diseases, therefore we should consume lots of antioxidants to stay healthy.


    palo azul flavonoids

    Flavonoids

    I'm sure at this point you're dying to know... What the heck flavonoids?!

    Flavonoids are natural products found in vegetables, fruits, plants, bark, flowers, wine and teas like Palo Azul.

    There’s been literally HUNDREDS of studies that have found a ton of health benefits which are attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-aging, anti-hypertensive, anti-bacterial, anti-mutagenic, anti-viral and anti-cancer properties.

    palo azul and fruits with flavonoids

    For example, numerous epidemiological (population) studies show an “inverse correlation between dietary flavonoid consumption and chronic degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, osteoporosis, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancers.”

    According to a medical review, flavonoids’ powerful health benefits have made them “an indispensable component in a variety of nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, medicinal and cosmetic applications.

    These are the MOST flavonoid-rich foods: apples, pears, onions, strawberries, blueberries, celery, peppers, and teas such as palo azul

    applepearsonionsstrawberries and blueberriescelerypalo azul tea


    We think this might be the healthiest compound on planet Earth!

    This is the reason why we should be eating vegetables, fruits, and drinking palo azul tea every day :)


    How can flavonoids help you?

    Lower your cholesterol

    eggs cholesterol

    One study done on flavonoids concluded that “flavonoids in tea may lower blood cholesterol concentrations and blood pressure, thereby providing some protection against cardiovascular disease.”

    Another study found that the antioxidant property of flavonoids " inhibits the oxidation of LDL cholesterol.”

    Finally, another study concluded that: “Palo Azul (EP) reduced the blood glucose, increased serum insulin, body weight, marker enzymes of hepatic function, glycogen, HDL, GK and HK while there was reduction in the levels of triglyceride, cholesterol.”



    Reduce risk of cardiovascular disease

    palo azul vs cardiovascular disease

    Epidemiological, clinical and animal studies reveal that “flavonoids may exert protective effects against various disease conditions including cardiovascular disease and cancer.”

    Other population studies have demonstrated that “flavonoid intake is inversely correlated with mortality from cardiovascular disease.”

    Researchers also found that flavonoids maylower blood cholesterol concentrations and blood pressure, thereby providing some protection against cardiovascular disease.”

    Finally, a study concluded the following:

    "Antioxidant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic properties play a significant role in the lower cardiovascular mortality illustrated by increased flavonoid consumption.”

    Reduce risk of atherosclerosis

    butter atherosclerosis

    Various epidemiological studies show that “flavonoids in tea may lower blood cholesterol concentrations and blood pressure, thereby providing some protection against cardiovascular disease.”

    This is due to its ability to "inhibit the oxidation of LDL through a mechanism involving the elimination of free radicals that plays a key role during atherosclerosis.”

    One study established the importance of the oxidation of LDL cholesterol by writing that “oxidative modification of LDL cholesterol is thought to play a key role during atherosclerosis.”

    *Here comes an extremely important finding!

    Scientists in one study observed the “consumption of them (flavonoids) is associated with improvement in endothelial function (blockage of arteries) via vascular endothelial nitric oxide synthase and protein kinase B (Akt) activation.”


    What is endothelial function?

    The endothelium is a thin membrane that lines the inside of the heart and blood vessels. Endothelial cells release substances that control vascular relaxation and contraction, as well as enzymes that control blood clotting, immune function, and platelet adhesion.

    palo azul vs endothelial dysfunction or clogged arteries

    Endothelial dysfunction has been shown to be important in predicting stroke and heart attacks due to the inability of the arteries to dilate completely. Dysfunction can result from high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol, and smoking.

    Studies have shown that endothelial dysfunction precedes the development of atherosclerosis, a chronic disease characterized by abnormal thickening and hardening of the artery walls. This can cause a stroke or a heart attack.

    In other words...

    Endothelial dysfunction causes a blockage in the arteries that can lead to hypertension, stroke, or heart attack.


    This is why you should take care of your cholesterol levels by consuming flavonoid-rich foods and eliminating inflammatory and oxidative foods!


    Do you want to avoid oxidative stress and inflammation in your body?

    We already shared a list of flavonoid-rich foods which you should definitely include in your diet. The following are some of the most powerful anti-inflammatory and antioxidant foods on the planet.

    Antiinflammatory and antioxidant foods: vegetables, fruits, nuts, seeds, fatty fish, olive oil, turmuric, cocoa and teas such as palo azul

    palo azul and antiinflammatory foods

    Inflammatory and oxidative foods: foods that are heavily processed and have high fructose content, trans fats and refined carbs

    hamburger and fries lead to oxidative stress


    Reduce your risk of Hypertension

    man with hypertension

    We’ve read two medical reviews composed of findings from 327 different studies conducted specifically on flavonoids, and their findings revealed that "dietary flavonoids are associated with a lower risk of hypertension and CVD (cardiovascular disease).”


    The scientists who published these reviews also observed that “the blood pressure level was reduced in patients with hypertension” after greater consumption of flavonoids.


    Finally, one study concluded the following:

    “Flavonoids in tea may lower blood cholesterol concentrations and blood pressure, thereby providing some protection against cardiovascular disease.”



    Reduce your risk of Alzheimer, Parkinson, or Dementia

    man with alzheimers parkinsons or dementia

    A very interesting study analyzed a group of 49,281 men and 80,336 women in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and found that “the participants in the highest quintile of total flavonoids had a 40% lower PD (Parkinson’s Disease) risk than those in the lowest quintile.” The researchers from this study concluded the following:

    “Our findings suggest that intake of some flavonoids may reduce PD (Parkinson's Disease) risk”

    Another study found that flavonoids have “favourable biochemical and antioxidant effects associated with various diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease (AD), atherosclerosis, etc.”

    FInally, a study concluded the following:

    “Flavonoids contained in berries may have a positive effect against Parkinson's disease and may help to improve memory in elderly people. Intake of antioxidant flavonoids has been inversely related to the risk of incidence of dementia.”



    Reduce risk of erectile dysfunction

    man with erectile dysfunction

    Results from one study "showed that “flavonoid consumption 50 mg/day reduced the risk of erectile dysfunction by 32%.”

    Another study found similarly that "flavonoid-rich foods are associated with a reduced incidence of erectile dysfunction.”

    Additionally, one study found that "men with erectile dysfunction reported a lower monthly average of total flavonoid intake."

    Due to the antioxidant capacity of flavonoids, another study concludes that flavonoids "may ameliorate erectile dysfunction by inhibiting oxidative stress."

    Finally we’re done with flavonoids and antioxidants! But there’s still much left to cover :)

    You can read the full article here: Palo Azul vs Erectile Dysfunction


    How can anti-inflammatories help you?

    Reduce sciatic nerve pain

    palo azul sciatic nerve health


    We know what you're thinking... "How is it possible to reduce sciatic nerve pain by drinking tea? We thought the same thing, so we did a ton of research and found 2 main reasons.


    Firstly, the main reason for this pain is commonly caused by the accumulation of uric acid in the blood and Palo Azul is an active reducer of uric acid levels. Inflammation is another common cause of sciatic nerve pain and we have already discovered that Palo Azul is a powerful anti-inflammatory. For these 2 reasons, Palo Azul has been traditionally used for centuries to cure sciatic nerve pain and also joint pain.

    One medical study concluded the following: The inhibition (of inflammation) leads to a reduction in pain behavior and inflammation following chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve.

    Another medical article mentions that “any cause of irritation or inflammation of the sciatic nerve can produce the symptoms of sciatica.”

    In addition to this, one study found mentions that “the plant (palo azul) has been used in traditional treatments of nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis [2], lumbalgia, arthritis, rheumatism, sciatica, and as blood depurative because it eliminates uric acid, of which application the palo azul derives its diuretic and antirheumatic fame.”

    You can read the full article here: Palo Azul vs. Sciatic Nerve Pain


    Reduces back pain and arthritis

    woman with back pain

    Various studies have found that flavonoids and palo azul’s antiinflammatory capacities are effective for treating arthritis and pain management.

    One study found that “the ethanol extract of Palo Azul and its flavonoids-rich fractions “inhibited secondary inflammatory reactions in arthritic rats” and that “many plant constituents, including flavonoids, have proven effective against arthritis.”

    Another study mentions that many plant constituents, including flavonoids, have proven effective against arthritis by reducing cartilage degradation, diminishing leukocyte infiltration in the synovial space, decreasing serum cytokine levels, and other mechanisms (9).“

    Finally, one study concluded the following: “Our findings support the use of Eysenhardtia polystachya bark (Palo Azul) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and pain management.”




    Strengthens joints

    palo azul strengthens joint health

    A common cause of joint pain is inflammation, and we already know that palo azul is a powerful anti-inflammatory.

    In addition to this, a study found that flavonoids (found in vegetables, fruits and teas like palo azul) “have the most potential of dietary components for promotion of bone health beyond calcium and vitamin D.”

    This finding is supported by population studies whichecent have shown “flavonoid consumption to have a stronger association with bone than general fruit and vegetable consumption.”

    You can read the entire article here: Palo Azul can Strengthen your Joints!

    palo azul and fruits with flavonoids

    So, what are you waiting for?

    Now you know all the miraculous benefits of Palo Azul and its flavonoids... so there’s no reason why you shouldn't be eating vegetables, fruits, and drinking Palo Azul tea every day!


    Now you see why we call it MagickTea?

    ;)


    buy palo azul button

    Medical Studies

    * Palo Azul is commonly referred to by its scientific name: Eysenhardtia polystachya / E. polystachya / E.P - Cyclolepis genistoides / C. genistoides - kidney wood - palo dulce

    (Apr-Jun, 2014) Evaluation of antidiabetic, antioxidant and antiglycating activities of the Eysenhardtia polystachya

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic, antioxidant and antiglycation properties of Eysenhardtia polystachya (EP) bark methanol-water extract. EP showed Hdonor activity, free radical scavenging activity, metal chelating ability and lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant activity may be attributed to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. EP is an inhibitor of fluorescent AGE, methylglyoxal and the glycation of haemoglobin. In STZ-induced diabetic mice, EP reduced the blood glucose, increased serum insulin, body weight, marker enzymes of hepatic function, glycogen, HDL, GK and HK while there was reduction in the levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, TBARS, LDL and G6Pase.


    Conclusion: Eysenhardtia polystachya possesses considerable antioxidant activity with reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity and demonstrated an anti-AGEs and hepatoprotective role, inhibits hyperglycemic, hyperlipidemic and oxidative stress indicating that these effects may be mediated by interacting with multiple targets operating in diabetes mellitus.

    Our results in this experiment showed that E. polystachya has an antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, a significant ability to reduce the formation of AGEs and antioxidant activities, which are considered to play important roles in the development of diabetes complications. Therefore, this plant may have relevance in the prevention and treatment of diseases in which oxidants or free radicals or AGEs are implicated. As a result, chemical studies are now being undertaken to characterise these bioactivities.



    (Sept 8, 2018) Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Eysenhardtia polystachya and Assessment of the Inhibition of Glycation in Multiple Stages In Vitro and in the Zebrafish Model

    The aim was to investigate the inhibitory activities on AGE formation by testing silver nanoparticles fabricated using a methanol extract of Eysenhardtia polystachya (EP–AgNPs) and characterized using various physicochemical techniques.


    Conclusion: EP–AgNPs markedly reduced the formation of AGEs, Amadorin-product/fructosamine, Nε-(carboxymethyl)-lysine, amyloid cross β-structure, and protein carbonyl content in BSA-glucose system and increased total thiol-group after 4 weeks in hyperglycemic zebrafish, EP–AgNPs provided a protective effect against glycation. Data suggest that the inhibitory activity of EP–AgNPs on formation of AGEs is developed through a multiple-stage mechanism of glycation. EP–AgNPs could therefore be an antiglycation agent for prevention diabetic complications.



    (June 8, 2016) Properties of Flavonoids Isolated from the Bark of Eysenhardtia polystachya and Their Effect on Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Mice

    Six new flavonoids 2′,4′-dihydroxychalcone-6′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), α,3,2′,4′-tetrahydroxy-4-methoxy-dihydrochalcone-3′-C-β-glucopyranosy-6′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), 7-hydroxy-5,8′-dimethoxy-6′α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-8-(3-phenyl-trans-acryloyl)-1-benzopyran-2-one (3), 6′7-dihydroxy-5,8-dimethoxy-8(3-phenyl-trans-acryloyl)-1-benzopyran-2-one (4), 9-hydroxy-3,8-dimethoxy-4-prenylpterocarpan (5), and α,4,4′-trihydroxydihydrochalcone-2′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6) were isolated from bark of Eysenhardtia polystachya. Results indicated that 1–5 scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (), nitric oxide radicals (), superoxide anion radical (), radical cation (), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) radical, and protection against H2O2 induced BSA damage was also observed. Furthermore, 1–5 showed ability to decrease the oxidative stress in H9c2 cell. The antioxidant properties of compounds 1–5 are a promising strategy for ameliorating therapeutic effects by avoiding disorders in the normal redox reactions in healthy cells which consequently could alleviate complications of diabetes.


    Conclusion: Our data indicates that isolated 1–5 from the bark of Eysenhardtia polystachya have an ability to reduce oxidative stress under diabetic conditions, prevent and/or delay the onset renal, pancreatic, and hepatic damage through decreasing of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant properties, and increasing radical scavenging enzymes activity, also reduce intracellular reactive oxygen species, and they consequently could alleviate complications of diabetes. In addition, the antioxidant properties of compounds 1–5 are a promising strategy for ameliorating therapeutic effects by avoiding disorders in the normal redox reactions in healthy cells.




    (Winter 2018) The Ethanolic Extract of Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ort.) Sarg. Bark and Its Fractions Delay the Progression of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Show Antinociceptive Activity in Murine Models

    Eysenhardtia polystachya is widely used in folk medicine as an anti-rheumatic and analgesic agent, but no systematic study of its effects on several markers associated with rheumatoid arthritis and its ethnomedical use as analgesic agent has been performed. We evaluated the anti-arthritic and antinociceptive properties of an ethanolic extract of E. polystachya (EE) bark and its rich-flavonoids fractions in murine models. Many plant constituents, including flavonoids, have proven effective against arthritis by reducing cartilage degradation, diminishing leukocyte infiltration in the synovial space, decreasing serum cytokine levels, and other mechanisms (9). Phytochemical studies indicate that E. polystachya contains polyphenols, and previous chemical examination of this species led to the isolation and structural elucidation of several flavonoids (11, 12). The methanol-water extract showed antidiabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, an ability to reduce the formation of advanced glycation end products, and an antioxidant capacity in-vitro (12).


    Conclusion: EE and its rich-flavonoids fractions inhibited secondary inflammatory reactions, diminished the specific histopathological alterations in the joint capsule and reduced the serum concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and GM-CSF in arthritic rats. EE also reduced the number of writhes produced by acetic acid and increased the response time on the hot plate for mice. Our findings support the use of Eysenhardtia polystachya bark for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and pain management.

    In conclusion, the ethanolic extract of Eysenhardtia polystachya bark and its rich-flavonoids fractions inhibited secondary inflammatory reactions in arthritic rats and delayed histopathological alterations of joint capsules. Eysenhardtia polystachya also decreased the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and GM-CSF and showed antinociceptive activity at the peripheral and central levels, which suggests that this plant has an effect on the cellular immune response. These findings support the use of Eysenhardtia polystachya in Mexican folk medicine for treating rheumatoid arthritis and pain management.



    (May 1, 2018) Protection of silver nanoparticles using Eysenhardtia polystachya in peroxide-induced pancreatic β-Cell damage and their antidiabetic properties in zebrafish

    The aim was to explore the efficacy of extract of Eysenhardtia polystachya-loaded silver nanoparticles (EP/AgNPs) on pancreatic β cells, INS-1 cells, and zebrafish as a valuable model for the study of diabetes mellitus. EP/AgNPs promote pancreatic β-cell survival, insulin secretion, enhanced hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia in glucose-induced diabetic zebrafish. EP/AgNPs also showed protection of the pancreatic β-cell line INS-1 against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative injury.

    The tree Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ortega) Sarg, which belongs to the family Leguminosae, is known as “palo azul” and has been widely used as an antirheumatic and in the treatment of nephrolithiasis and bladder disorders that occur in diabetes.27 Phytochemical studies indicate that E. polystachya contains polyphenols.28 In another study, isoflavans displayed the moderate cytotoxic activity against KB cell lines.29 A methanol–water extract of the bark of E. polystachya showed antioxidant potential, hypoglycemic effects, and inhibition of the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs).30 The effect of flavonoids isolated from the bark of E. polystachya on oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetes mellitus in mice was also examined.31 In other research, we determined that dihydrochalcones inhibit the formation of AGEs.32 The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of E. polystachya-loaded silver nanoparticles (EP/AgNPs) on glucose-induced diabetic zebrafish and peroxide-induced pancreatic INS-1 cell damage.

    To produce an antidiabetic effect in zebrafish, the EE of EP must be significant. When the EP extract was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy (Figure 1), two peaks at 284 and 325 nm, which are characteristic of the flavonoid bands I and II, respectively, were observed.41 The EP encapsulation efficiency of the obtained nanoparticles was found to be 84.8%. The synthesized AgNPs displayed an incorporation efficiency of 44.34%, showing that they were effectively loaded.

    Treatment with EP/AgNPs alone or in the presence of H2O2 could ameliorate insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism (Figure 6). EP/AgNPs promote pancreatic β-cell survival, insulin secretion-enhanced hyperglycemia, and hypolipidemia. These results confirming the effectiveness of nanoparticles in ameliorating hyperglycemia.

    EP/AgNP treatment may provide beneficial effects on the function of insulin secretion through its protective effect on pancreatic β cells.48 In addition, a zebrafish model was used to confirm the antidiabetic efficacy of EP/AgNPs on experimental diabetic animals.

    The findings demonstrated that diabetic fish had higher serum insulin concentrations than control zebrafish, suggesting pancreatic β-cell damage in this group, while EP/AgNPs at a dose of 100 µg/mL resulted in decreased plasma insulin levels (by 54%) compared with the glucose-induced diabetic fish group, which was similar to normoglycemic control zebrafish (Figure 8B). The results confirm the ability of EP/AgNPs to ameliorate cell viability and insulin secretion in zebrafish under high glucose concentrations. In this study, the treatments of zebrafish glucose-induced diabetes with EP/AgNPs were consistent with those reported in previous studies, confirming the effectiveness of nanoparticles in ameliorating hyperglycemia.


    Conclusion: The results indicate that EP/AgNPs have good antidiabetic activity and therefore could be used to prevent the development of diabetes. The biosynthesized AgNPs from bark methanol/water extract of E. polystachya contain bioactive compounds such as chalcones, flavonoids, and dihydrochalcones, which play a determinant role in the phytofabrication of the AgNPs. EP/AgNPs promote pancreatic β-cell survival, insulin secretion-enhanced hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia in glucose-induced diabetic zebrafish. In addition, EP/AgNPs restore insulin secretion from INS-1 cells stimulated by H2O2, suggesting that this could result from cytoprotection against oxidative injury. These findings suggest that EP/AgNPs could be used as therapeutic nanoparticles to prevent the development of diabetes.



    (Dec 1, 2011) SEPARACIÓN Y EVALUACIÓN DEL EFECTO ANTIINFLAMATORIO Y ANTIOXIDANTE DE LOS FLAVONOIDES DE Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ort.) Sarg.

    Flavonoids exhibited strong antioxidant activity and other properties that are capable of inhibiting the inflammatory process by different mechanisms of action in vitro and in vivo. Recent research in our laboratory demonstrated the presence of flavonoids in Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ort.) Sarg. (sweet wood) a tree widely distributed in Mexico, as well as anti-inflammatory activity of leaves and bark after the administration of infusion and decoction at a dose of 200 mg/kg (bw) and ethanol extract at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg (bw) in a murine model of chronic granulomatous inflammation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to separate the flavonoid-rich fraction of Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ort.) Sarg. and evaluate its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.

    Final and dry weights of the granulomas obtained from rats treated with fractions rich in flavonoids and indomethacin significantly decreased as compared to the control group.


    Conclusion: The results of this research show that the fractions rich in flavonoids induce an anti-inflammatory effect in chronic inflammation, probably produced by its selective inhibition of COX-2



    (March 28, 2019) 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-α,4,2,4,6-pentahydroxy-dihydrochalcone, from Bark of Eysenhardtia polystachya Prevents Diabetic Nephropathy via Inhibiting Protein Glycation in STZ-Nicotinamide Induced Diabetic Mice

    Previous studies have shown that accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) can be the cause of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in diabetic patients. Dihydrochalcone 3′-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl α,4,2′,4′,6′-pentahydroxy–dihydrochalcone (1) is a powerful antiglycation compound previously isolated from Eysenhardtia polystachya. After 5 weeks, these elevated markers of dihydrochalcone treatment (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) were significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated. In addition, they ameliorate the indices of renal inflammation as indicated by ICAM-1 markers. The kidney and circulatory AGEs levels in diabetic mice were significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated by (1) treatment. Histological analysis of kidney tissues showed an important recovery in its structure compared with the diabetic group. It was found that the compound (1) attenuated the renal damage in diabetic mice by inhibiting AGEs formation.

    In previous studies, we isolated several dihydrochalcones from the Bark of Eysenhardtia polystachya [10], which showed an efficient inhibition of fluorescent and non-fluorescent AGE formation, reduced level of fructosamine, significantly suppressed oxidation of thiols and protein carbonyl content in a BSA/glucose system; in addition, inhibited generation of MGO, and the formation of amyloid cross-β structure.


    Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the treatment with dihydrochalcone protects renal function and prevents kidney injury in STZ-nicotinamide induced diabetic nephropathy, ameliorated markers of DN, as well as inflammation, HbA1C, AGE-inhibition in kidneys and circulation.

    The renoprotective effect of dihydrochalcone isolated from Eysenhardtia polystachya might be associated in part to its ability to react with reactive carbonyl species and cleavage of pre-formed AGEs within the kidney by a cross- link breaker inhibiting AGEs-formation.



    (Summer, 2018) Silver nanoparticles synthesized with a fraction from the bark of Eysenhardtia polystachya with high chalcone and dihydrochalcone content effectively inhibit oxidative stress in the zebrafish embryo model

    In this study, we describe a simple eco-friendly approach for the synthesis of a potent, stable and benign silver nanoparticles to carry and deliver chalcones and dihydrochalcones present in a methanol extract of Eysenhardtia polystachya (EP). This study also demonstrated the biocompatibility of the nanoparticles when tested in RAW264.7 cells and its protective efficacy against oxidative stress induced by the exposure of zebrafish embryos to high glucose concentrations. Treatment with EP/AgNPs increased the activity of anti-stress biomarkers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and total soluble protein. Exposure of the embryos to EP/AgNPs significantly (P<0.05) suppressed the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and lipid oxidation (LPO).


    Conclusion: EP/AgNPs synthesized from E. polystachya extract provide an effective defense against oxidative stress in zebrafish embryos.



    (Winter 2018) The Ethanolic Extract of Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ort.) Sarg. Bark and Its Fractions Delay the Progression of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Show Antinociceptive Activity in Murine Models

    Eysenhardtia polystachya is widely used in folk medicine as an anti-rheumatic and analgesic agent, but no systematic study of its effects on several markers associated with rheumatoid arthritis and its ethnomedical use as analgesic agent has been performed. We evaluated the anti-arthritic and antinociceptive properties of an ethanolic extract of E. polystachya (EE) bark and its rich-flavonoids fractions in murine models. Many plant constituents, including flavonoids, have proven effective against arthritis by reducing cartilage degradation, diminishing leukocyte infiltration in the synovial space, decreasing serum cytokine levels, and other mechanisms (9). Phytochemical studies indicate that E. polystachya contains polyphenols, and previous chemical examination of this species led to the isolation and structural elucidation of several flavonoids (11, 12). The methanol-water extract showed antidiabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, an ability to reduce the formation of advanced glycation end products, and an antioxidant capacity in-vitro (12).


    Conclusion: EE and its rich-flavonoids fractions inhibited secondary inflammatory reactions, diminished the specific histopathological alterations in the joint capsule and reduced the serum concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and GM-CSF in arthritic rats. EE also reduced the number of writhes produced by acetic acid and increased the response time on the hot plate for mice. Our findings support the use of Eysenhardtia polystachya bark for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and pain management.

    In conclusion, the ethanolic extract of Eysenhardtia polystachya bark and its rich-flavonoids fractions inhibited secondary inflammatory reactions in arthritic rats and delayed histopathological alterations of joint capsules. Eysenhardtia polystachya also decreased the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and GM-CSF and showed antinociceptive activity at the peripheral and central levels, which suggests that this plant has an effect on the cellular immune response. These findings support the use of Eysenhardtia polystachya in Mexican folk medicine for treating rheumatoid arthritis and pain management.



    (Feb 29, 2015) Evolution of anti-inflammatory activity of the bark of Eysenhardtia polystachia in experimental animal models

    The bark of Eysenhardtia polystachia has been used in Mexican folk medicine for treatment of anti-inflammatory diseases. A total of 1000g of the bark of E. polystachya were dried and powdered in a mechanical grinder. The ground material was extracted with 5L of hexane (PAH), chloroform (PAC) and methanol (PAM) consecutively using a soxhlet apparatus.

    Our data indicate that PAM exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in all the trials of paw and ear edema induced exhibiting also anti-arthritic activity. PAM could also markedly inhibit production of pro inflammatory cytokines, especially TNF(alpha), IL-1(beta), PGE(2) and LTB(4). These effects resulted in an attenuation of the inflammatory cytokines and ultimately suppression of the edema. It was seen that PAM is effective on chronic inflammation and acute inflammation.

    The methanol extract (PAM) exhibited significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory activity in all assays, instead hexane and chloroform extracts showed no anti-inflammatory activity.

    The results of this study demonstrated that methanol extract of the bark of E.poystachya acts as an anti-inflammatory agent. It also can be a good source of effective crude inhibitors for XO and LOX. The finding presented in this study are encouraging an substantiate the search for newer pharmacophores in palo azul behind the anti-inflammatory effect.



    (May 25, 2011) Anti-inflammatory properties from isolated compounds of Cyclolepis genistoides

    Phytochemical studies of the aqueous extract of C. genistoides showed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, tannins, and anthraquinones. Instead, oleanolic acid (1) and the sesquiterpene lactone deacylcynaropicrin (2), which have been previously reported in this plant (De Heluani et. al., 1997), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract. Compound 1 exhibited significant activity at 1, 3, 5, and 7 h, while compound 2 showed significant inhibition at 3 and 5 h.


    Conclusions: From the results obtained in this work, we can conclude that the intraperitoneal administration of both isolated compounds from C. genistoides showed a significant inhibition of the carrageenan-induced inflammation at doses of 75 and 100 mg/kg, while the dose of 40 mg/kg did not produce a significant anti-inflammatory effect. Considering that compounds 1 and 2 were isolated from aerial parts of C. genistoides, these results give support to the use of this plant as an anti-inflammatory in traditional medicine.



    (Oct, 2018) Pharmacological and toxicological study of a chemical-standardized ethanol extract of the branches and leaves from Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ortega) Sarg. (Fabaceae)

    Eysenhardtia polystachya is used for the empirical treatment of cancer, infections, diarrhea, inflammation, and pain. This study identified, using GC-MS, the main chemical components in an ethanol extract of E. polystachya branches and leaves (EPE) and tested its cytotoxic, antimicrobial, anti-diarrheal, anti-inflammatory, and antinociceptive effects.

    Conclusion: EPE exerted in vitro anti-inflammatory effects, mainly, by the decrease in the production of H2O2 (IC50 = 43.9 ± 3.8 µg/ml), and IL-6 (73.3 ± 6.9 µg/ml). EPE (ED50 =7.5 ± 0.9 mg/kg) and D-pinitol (ED50 = 0.1 ± 0.03 mg/kg) showed antidiarrheal activity, and antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid test with ED50 = 117 ± 14.5 mg/kg for EPE and 33 ± 3.2 mg/kg for D-pinitol. EPE showed also antinociceptive activity in the phase 2 of the formalin test (ED50 = 48.9 ± 3.9 mg/kg), without inducing hypnotic effects or altering the locomotor activity in mice. The results here presented corroborate the folk medicinal use of Eysenhardtia polystachya in the treatment of infections, diarrhea, inflammation, and pain. D-pinitol, the main metabolite of EPE, showed antinociceptive and antidiarrheal effects with similar potency compared to standard drugs.



    (2010) Transgenic inhibition of glial NF-kappa B reduces pain behavior and inflammation after peripheral nerve injury

    We utilized a transgenic mouse model (GFAP-IκBα-dn) where the classical NF-κB pathway is inactivated by overexpression of a dominant negative (dn) form of the inhibitor of kappa B (IκBα) in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-expressing cells, which include astrocytes, Schwann cells, and satellite cells of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and sought to determine whether glial NF-κB inhibition leads to a reduction in pain behavior and inflammation following chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve.

    We can therefore conclude that transgenic inhibition of NF-κB in GFAP-expressing glial cells attenuated pain and inflammation after peripheral nerve injury. These findings suggest that targeting the inflammatory response in Schwann cells and satellite cells may be important in treating neuropathic pain.


    (2019) Sciatica Nerve Pain

    While sciatica is most commonly a result of a lumbar disc herniation directly pressing on the nerve, any cause of irritation or inflammation of the sciatic nerve can produce the symptoms of sciatica. This irritation of nerves as a result of an abnormal intervertebral disc is referred to as radiculopathy.

    Medications used in the treatment of sciatica include pain relievers, muscle relaxants, anti-inflammatories, and antidepressants.


    The duration of sciatica is critically dependent on its cause. A herniated disc, back sprain, shingles, and degenerative lumbar spine can all cause temporary forms of sciatica, lasting from days to weeks. Each can also cause chronic sciatica. Sometimes degeneration of the lumbar spine and discs can cause chronic sciatica that persists unless a surgical intervention is performed.


    Keys to the management of acute sciatica include relief of pain and relaxing associated muscle spasms. Home remedies include heat and cold pack topical administration, over-the-counter pain medications such as acetaminophen (Tylenol), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like naproxen (Aleve), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), and aspirin, and physical therapy that incorporates gradual exercises and stretching. Exercises and stretching can sometimes best be guided by physical therapists.

    (2008) Development of a capillary electrophoresis method for the characterization of “palo azul” (Eysenhardtia polystachya)

    The plant has been used in traditional treatments of nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis [2], lumbalgia, arthritis, rheumatism, sciatica, and as blood depurative because it eliminates uric acid, of which application the palo azul derives its diuretic and antirheumatic fame. For inges- tion purposes, the wood chips are brought to boil in water to produce a golden-colored liquor having a light blue fluorescence, from which the sick can take two or three cups a day [3].

    Among the E. polystachya components, there can be found polyphenol compounds, tannins, or flavonoid compounds [5, 6], which are a variable and complex mix- ture of bitter, astringent chemicals, although in general these are esters from one kind of sugar having a variable number of phenol acids [7].


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